Modern and Future Climate

The Climate Science Group strives to solve problems in climate on timescales from seasonal to Quaternary and beyond. We use models representing the ocean, the atmosphere, the cryosphere and the land surface, ranging from simple to complex. In addition to analyses of data from recent decades, we develop techniques to extract as much as possible from the inaccurate and sparse data of the past.
Much of our work, often in collaboration with the International Research Institute located at Lamont, has been on understanding and predicting seasonal to interannual climate variations, especially El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, and on the impacts of such variations on agriculture and health. Our recent focus is on accounting for the startlingly abrupt changes apparent in the paleoclimate record. Could such changes occur in the near future? Our investigations of the past and the future rely heavily on our knowledge of modern climate dynamics.

Taro Takahashi
Personal Information
Taro
Takahashi
Lamont Special Research Scientist
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Geochemistry
Adjunct Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Contact Information
101Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8537

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

Fields of interest: 

CO2 cycling through oceans and atmosphere; industrial CO2 accumulation.

My main research is aimed at understanding the fate of industrial CO2 released in the air. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the 1800s, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by nearly 30% in the 1990s and it is anticipated that it will double the pre industrial level by the middle of the 21st century. This could cause a global warming and changes in climate, which may extensively impact upon the global community. The observed increase in this "greenhouse" gas in the air is half of that which is expected from the full released amount. Thus, this suggests that about one-half the industrial CO2 released is being absorbed by the global oceans and land plants. However, the relative importance of these two CO2 sinks is not understood. Furthermore, the uptake capacity of these CO2 sinks conceivably could be reduced as more CO2 accumulates in the air.

My research group measures CO2 and related quantities in the world oceans, from the Arctic to Antarctic regions, to learn how fast atmospheric CO2 is transferred into the different areas of the oceans. Seasonal and annual changes are being documented. These measurements provide basic information on how CO2 is cycled through the oceans and atmosphere and how these cycles are affected in response to industrial CO2 being accumulated at ever-increasing rates. I hope that my study will lead to a better understanding and hence to a reliable prediction of the oceans capacity to absorb industrial CO2.

Education
Ph.D.
Columbia
1957
B. Eng.
U Tokyo
1953
Ryan Abernathey
Personal Information
Ryan
Abernathey
Associate Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Ocean and Climate Physics
Contact Information
205C Oceanography
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8185

Fax: 

(845) 365-8156

Fields of interest: 

physical oceanography, ocean circulation, climate dynamics, mesoscale eddies, mixing and transport,

My primary research interests are:

  • The role of ocean circulation (particularly the Southern Ocean) in the climate system
  • Dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and its overturning circulation
  • Mixing and transport by ocean eddies

 

Education
Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
02/2012
B.A.
Middlebury College
06/2004
Kevin L. Griffin
Personal Information
Kevin
L.
Griffin
Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Biology and Paleo Environment
Contact Information
128B Marine Biology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8371

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

Plant respiration; global carbon cycle; forest ecology

After more than 150 million years of isolation the podocarps that dominate the forests of the west coast of the south island of New Zealand have remarkably slow growth rates by comparison to most other forest tree species. The question is, why? In New York, the aging eastern deciduous forests continue to rapidly accumulate carbon. Could this be the result of the high levels of atmospheric N deposition this area receives? When plants are grown in elevated CO2 photosynthesis is stimulated initially but often this enhancement does not last and given time, a strong acclimation to the new growth environment can occur. Is there a reason why some plants acclimate to CO2 and others do not? Plant respiration is often thought of as the processes by which plants loose carbon during the night. How then can we estimate the contribution of respiration to the carbon balance of arctic plants which never experience night during the growing season? Plant cells from leaves of plants grown in elevated CO2 tend to have twice the number of mitochondria and chloroplast as cells from plants grown in ambient CO2. Is there a link between this structural observation and physiological function?

These are a few examples of the type of research questions my lab is currently working on. The objective of this research is to explain processes in plant and ecosystem ecology in terms of the physiological, biochemical and biophysical processes involved. Ultimately we hope to increase our understanding of both the role of the Earth's vegetation in the global carbon cycle and the interactions between the carbon cycle and the Earth's climate system.

Some of my projects include:

  • Environmental Controls on Tree Growth: A Comparison between the Cascade Brook Watershed of Black Rock Forest, NY and a Native New Zealand Forest.
  • Effects of developmental changes on the physiological processes that regulate photosynthetic responses to climate change.
  • Land-Water Interactions at the Catchment Scale: Linking Biogeochemistry and Hydrology.

 

 

Education
Ph.D.
Duke
1994
M.E.S.
Yale
1987
Bachelor of Arts
Whittier
1985
Selected Publications:
Leaf respiration is differentially affected by leaf vs. stand-level night-time warming, Griffin, K. L.; Turnbull, M.; Murthy, R.; Lin, G. H.; Adams, J.; Farnsworth, B.; Mahato, T.; Bazin, G.; Potasnak, M.; Berry, J. A. Global Change Biology May, Volume: 8, Issue: 5 p.: 479-485 (2002)
Canopy position affects the temperature response of leaf respiration in Populus deltoides, Griffin, K. L.; Turnbull, M.; Murthy, R. New Phytologist Jun, Volume: 154, Issue: 3 p.: 609-619 (2002)
Leaf dark respiration as a function of canopy position in Nothofagus fusca trees grown at ambient and elevatedCO(2) partial pressures for 5 years, Griffin, K. L.; Tissue, D. T.; Turnbull, M. H.; Schuster, W.; Whitehead, D. Functional Ecology Aug, Volume: 15, Issue: 4 p.: 497-505 (2001)
Xiaomeng Jin
Personal Information
Xiaomeng
Jin
Graduate Student
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Ocean and Climate Physics
Contact Information
207E Oceanography
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US

Fax: 

(845) 365-8157
SONYA DYHRMAN
Personal Information
Sonya
Dyhrman
Associate Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Biology and Paleo Environment
Contact Information
102E Geoscience
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8165

Fax: 

(845) 365-8163

I am broadly interested in how marine microbes like phytoplankton interact with their geochemical environment, where I use molecular level tools to study the intersection of microbial physiology and biogeochemistry.

Microbial oceanography group members are using a suite of genome-enabled approaches to examine the distribution and activities of marine phytoplankton, and how they influence cycling of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Our work often uses model cultures to understand and bound field observations made on research cruises that span the from polar to tropical systems. This research emphasis provides advanced training for undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral scholars and it is also used as a framework for the development and implementation of inquiry-based educational activities for children.

Education
Ph.D.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego
11/1999
B.A.
Dartmouth College
06/1994
Arlene M. Fiore
Personal Information
Arlene
M.
Fiore
Associate Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Ocean and Climate Physics
Contact Information
207D Oceanography
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8580

Fax: 

(845) 365-8157

Fields of interest: 

interactions among regional air pollution, global atmospheric chemistry, climate, and the biosphere; chemistry-climate and tropospheric chemistry-transport modeling.

Please see group website (link above) for more information.

Education
Ph.D. in Earth and Planetary Sciences
Harvard University
06/2003
A.B. in Environmental Geoscience, magna cum laude
Harvard College
06/1997
Xiaojun Yuan
Personal Information
Xiaojun
Yuan
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Ocean and Climate Physics
Contact Information
204D Oceangraphy
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8820

Fax: 

(845) 365-8157

Fields of interest: 

My primary research interest is in the Antarcitc atmosphere, ocean and sea ice/glacial ice fields.

I have engaged in studies of variability of the Antarctic atmosphere-ocean-sea ice system and its role in global climate since 1995.My research has progressed from the identification of polar-global linkages, expanded to an ENSO-Antarctic Dipole teleconnection mechanism study, and finally resulted in an Antarctic sea ice forecast. At the same time, I have utilized space-born scatterometer observations and developed a series of studies focused on air-sea interactions on synoptic time scales, ranging from cyclone-sea ice interaction, high wind evaluations to satellite enhanced cyclone statistics in the Southern Ocean. With the accumulation of knowledge regarding climate variability in the atmosphere, sea ice and at the air-sea interface, an understanding of the ocean’s role in the mid-high latitudes climate system becomes increasingly important. However, this task is much more challenging because of sparse observations in the Southern Ocean. In recent years, I have developed a few oceanic field programs to advance our knowledge of how the polar ocean plays out in the climate system.

Education
Ph.D..
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego
12/1994
B.S. in Physical Onceanigraphy
Shandong College of Oceanography, Qingdao, China
6/1982
Selected Publications:
Inflow of Warm Circumpolar Deep Water in the Central Amundsen Shelf, Wahlin, A K; Yuan, X; Bjork, G; Nohr, C Journal of Physical Oceanography (2010)
Satellite-based midlatitude cyclone statistics over the Southern Ocean: 2. Tracks and surface fluxes, Yuan, X., J. Patoux and C. Li, J. Geophys. Res., , Volume: 114 (2009)
Trends in Antarctic annual sea ice retreat and advance and their relation to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode variability, Stammerjohn, S. E.; Martinson, D. G.; Smith, R. C.; Yuan, X.; Rind, D. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans Mar 14, Volume: 113, Issue: C3 p.: - (2008) Doi 10.1029/2007jc004269
Fronts and strong currents of the upper southeast Indian Ocean, He, Z. G.; Dong, Z. Q.; Yuan, X. J. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, Volume: 25, Issue: 2 p.: 1-24 (2006)
ENSO-related impacts on Antarctic sea ice: a synthesis of phenomenon and mechanisms, Yuan, X. J. Antarctic Science Dec, Volume: 16, Issue: 4 p.: 415-425 (2004) Doi 10.1017/S0954102004002238
High-wind-speed evaluation in the Southern Ocean, Yuan, X. J. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres Jul 1, Volume: 109, Issue: D13 p.: - (2004) Doi 10.1029/2003jd004179
A Markov model for seasonal forecast of Antarctic sea ice, Chen, D. K.; Yuan, X. J. Journal of Climate Aug, Volume: 17, Issue: 16 p.: 3156-3168 (2004)
Re-evaluating Antarctic sea-ice variability and its teleconnections in a GISS global climate model with improved sea ice and ocean processes, Liu, J. P.; Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G.; Rind, D. International Journal of Climatology Jun 15, Volume: 24, Issue: 7 p.: 841-852 (2004) Doi 10.1002/Joc.1040
Upper ocean thermohaline structure and its temporal variability in the southeast Indian Ocean, Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G.; Dong, Z. Q. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers Feb, Volume: 51, Issue: 2 p.: 333-347 (2004) DOI 10.1016/j.dsr.2003.10.005
Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model, Liu, J. P.; Schmidt, G. A.; Martinson, D. G.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.; Yuan, X. J. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans Feb 27, Volume: 108, Issue: C2 p.: - (2003) Doi 10.1029/2001jc001167
Evaluating Antarctic sea ice variability and its teleconnections in global climate models, Liu, J. P.; Martinson, D. G.; Yuan, X. J.; Rind, D. International Journal of Climatology Jun 30, Volume: 22, Issue: 8 p.: 885-900 (2002) Doi 10.1002/Joc.770
Mechanism study of the ENSO and southern high latitude climate teleconnections, Liu, J. P.; Yuan, X. J.; Rind, D.; Martinson, D. G. Geophysical Research Letters Jul 15, Volume: 29, Issue: 14 p.: - (2002) Doi 10.1029/2002gl015143
The Antarctic Dipole and its predictability, Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G. Geophysical Research Letters Sep 15, Volume: 28, Issue: 18 p.: 3609-3612 (2001)
Climate response to basin-specific changes in latitudinal temperature gradients and implications for sea ice variability, Rind, D.; Chandler, M.; Lerner, J.; Martinson, D. G.; Yuan, X. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres Sep 16, Volume: 106, Issue: D17 p.: 20161-20173 (2001)
Antarctic sea ice extent variability and its global connectivity, Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G. Journal of Climate May 15, Volume: 13, Issue: 10 p.: 1697-1717 (2000)
Effect of air-sea-ice interaction on winter 1996 Southern Ocean subpolar storm distribution, Yuan, X. J.; Martinson, D. G.; Liu, W. T. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres Jan 27, Volume: 104, Issue: D2 p.: 1991-2007 (1999)
Climate variation - Cycling around the South Pole, Yuan, X. J.; Cane, M. A.; Martinson, D. G. Nature Apr 25, Volume: 380, Issue: 6576 p.: 673-674 (1996)
The subarctic frontal zone in the North Pacific: Characteristics of frontal structure from climatological data and synoptic surveys, Yuan, X. J.; Talley, L. D. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans Jul 15, Volume: 101, Issue: C7 p.: 16491-16508 (1996)
Joaquim Goes
Personal Information
Joaquim
Goes
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Biology and Paleo Environment
Contact Information
7 Marine Biology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8467

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

a) Marine phytoplankton physiology and productivity b) Climate change and its impact on ocean biota and biogeochemical processes c) Development of ocean color and other remote sensing algorithms and methods for studying ocean carbon cycling and air-s

My major research efforts have been directed at understanding the structure and functioning of plankton ecosystems and their response to physical forcing so that a capability can be developed to forecast responses of marine ecosystems to global change (Goes et al, 2001. 2004, 2005; Limsakul et al., 2001). For my research work I rely on an approach that examines phytoplankton at the cellular level, where changes in phytoplankton cell physiology, biochemistry and optical properties are studied as a means of evaluating their role and response to changes in the environment (Goes et al., 2002). With the help of empirical or semi-analytical modeling techniques, information obtained at the cellular level is then extrapolated to regional and global scales using data from satellites and ships. Research on this front has led to the development of satellite based methods that have made it possible to assess how large-scale climatic events such as El-Niño and La Niña, the North Atlantic Oscillation impact atmospheric CO2 draw down by phytoplankton (export production). (Goes et al, 200, 2004) Ship and satellite studies, currently underway in the Arabian Sea, have provided the first indications of rapid ecosystem changes being brought about by global warming and the rapid decline in snow over the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau region (Goes et al.,2005, Gomes et al., 2008; 2009). Bio-optical and phytoplankton physiological studies being undertaken in the Bering Sea are aiding in the development of regional satellite ocean color algorithms that will help assess how the Bering Sea shelf ecosystem is responding to changes in sea-ice concentrations. In the Amazon River Plume, ship and satellite are being collected to help understand the influence of the Amazon River on the pelagic ecosystem, carbon cycling and sequestration in the tropical north Atlantic and the sensitivity of this ecosystem to anthropogenic climate change.

Education
Doctor of Science
Nagoya University, Japan
05/1996
Master of Science
Bombay University
09/1985
Bachelor of Science
Bombay University
06/1980
Neil Pederson
Personal Information
Neil
Pederson
Adjunct Assistant Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Biology and Paleo Environment
Contact Information

Fields of interest: 

Terrestrial Ecosystems, Dendrochronology, Dendroclimatology, Forest Ecosystems, Disturbance Ecology
Education
Ph.D.
Columbia University
08/2005
MS
Auburn University
08/1994
BS
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry
12/1990
AS
State University of New York Morrisville Ag & Tech
05/1988
Selected Publications:
Temperature and precipitation in Mongolia based on dendroclimatic investigations, Jacoby, G.; Pederson, N.; D'Arrigo, R. Chinese Science Bulletin Jul, Volume: 48, Issue: 14 p.: 1474-1479 (2003) Doi 10.1360/02wd0390
1738 years of Mongolian temperature variability inferred from a tree-ring width chronology of Siberian pine, D'Arrigo, R.; Jacoby, G.; Frank, D.; Pederson, N.; Cook, E.; Buckley, B.; Nachin, B.; Mijiddorj, R.; Dugarjav, C. Geophysical Research Letters Feb 1, Volume: 28, Issue: 3 p.: 543-546 (2001)
Hydrometeorological reconstructions for northeastern Mongolia derived from tree rings: 1651-1995, Pederson, N.; Jacoby, G. C.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Cook, E. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Dugarjav, C.; Mijiddorj, R. Journal of Climate, Volume: 14, Issue: 5 p.: 872-881 (2001)
Monogolian tree-rings, temperature sensitivity and reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere temperature, D'Arrigo, R.; Jacoby, G.; Pederson, N.; Frank, D.; Buckley, B.; Nachin, B.; Mijiddorj, R.; Dugarjav, C. Holocene Nov, Volume: 10, Issue: 6 p.: 669-672 (2000)
Temperature and precipitation in Mongolia based on dendroclimatic investigations, Jacoby, G.; D'Arrigo, R.; Pederson, N.; Buckley, B.; Dugarjav, C.; Mijiddorj, R. Iawa Journal, Volume: 20, Issue: 3 p.: 339-350 (1999)

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