Geochemistry

The Geochemistry faculty study a wide range of processes and interactions, including products of large-scale Earth differentiation, such as the composition, evolution and age of the mantle and core, the formation and evolution of oceanic and continental crust, interactions between the geochemical environment (soil, water, air) and human health, fundamental questions involving the oceans and continental water systems, global geochemical cycles involving the atmosphere, oceans and Earth's interior, natural and engineered methods for carbon capture and storage, and using a wide range of geochemical archives to understand how and why the ocean and climate have changed at timescales ranging from seasons to millions of years. The faculty has developed strong collaborations with Columbia University engineers, biologists, public health researchers and American Museum of Natural History petrologists, planetary geologists and paleontologists.

Nicolas Young
Personal Information
Nicolas
Young
Lamont Assistant Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Geochemistry
Contact Information
205 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8653

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

Fields of interest: 

Ice Sheets, glaciers, cosmogenic nuclides
Education
PhD - Geology
University at Buffalo
05/2012
MS - Geology
University at Buffalo
05/2008
BA - Geology
College of Wooster
05/2005
Maayan Yehudai
Personal Information
Maayan
Yehudai
Graduate Student
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Geochemistry
Contact Information
Maayan_Yehudai.jpg
419 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8328

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

Fields of interest: 

Geochemistry, Paleoclimate, Oceanography

I am a geoscientist interested in climatic and environmental changes and am seeking to develop novel approaches for tracing past variations. During my master’s, I used U-series isotopes to date uplifted coral reefs, from the Gulf of Aqaba, that were extensively altered to calcite. I dated the time of coral alteration and the age of original deposition in order to reconstruct sea-level (Bar et al., 2018; Yehudai et al., 2017). For my PhD research I have been using the geochemistry of ocean sediments from the North Atlantic to reconstruct changes in Atlantic-Ocean circulation associated with climatic shifts. I have also studied sediments from the Great Bahama Bank to infer dust supply fluctuations in response to the formation of the Sahara Desert. 

Education
Masters
Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel
07/2014
Bachelor
Ben-Gurion University in the Negev, Israel
07/2010
Yingzhe Wu
Personal Information
Yingzhe
Wu
Graduate Research Fellow
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Geochemistry
Contact Information
wu.jpg
433 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8569

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155
Franziska Landes
Personal Information
Franziska
Landes
Graduate Student
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Geochemistry
Contact Information
417 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8652

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

Fields of interest: 

Environmental geochemistry, environmental health, soil science, community-based participatory research, citizen science, environmental education

Franziska Landes is a Ph.D. candidate in the Earth and Environmental Science program at Columbia University. She is interested in environmental geochemistry and public health, especially the potential for community and public participation in science to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants while increasing environmental literacy. Her current work involves developing a field test kit for lead in soils and working with communities to discover the extent of soil-lead contamination in New York City and Peru.

After receiving her B.Sc. from Jacobs University in Germany, she worked for two years at the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducting and reviewing environmental assessments and remediation plans for the Brownfields Program.

Education
M.Phil. in Earth and Environmental Sciences
Columbia University
10/2017
M.A. in Earth and Environmental Sciences
Columbia University
05/2015
B.Sc. Earth and Space Science
Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany
06/2011
Selected Publications:
Cadmium and Uranium in German and Brazilian Phosphorous Fertilizers, Smidt, G.A.; Landes, F.C.; Carvalho, L.M.; Koschinsky, A.; Schnug, E. The New Uranium Mining Boom, Berlin p.: 167-174 (2012)
Kassandra Costa
Personal Information
Kassandra
Costa
Graduate Student
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Geochemistry
Contact Information
107 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8454

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

Fields of interest: 

Isotope geochemistry, paleoclimatology, paleoceanography, marine biogeochemistry

My research interests involve the application of major elements, trace elements and isotopes to investigate the interface between climate, biogeochemistry, and the environment. I am particularly interested in the tropics, and my recent projects have included stable isotope (dD) geochemistry in Ethiopia, redox (Fe, Cr, U) variability in Indonesia, and productivity and dust (231Pa/230Th, 232Th, d15N) fluctuations in the Central Equatorial Pacific. In my upcoming work, I will investigate the relationship between volcanism and global climate change at orbital timescales by tracking changes in hydrothermal vent activity as recorded in marine sediment cores from the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

Education
Sc. B.
Brown University
05/2012
Selected Publications:
Isotopic reconstruction of the African Humid Period and Congo Air Boundary migration at Lake Tana, Ethiopia, Costa, K.; Russell, J.; Konecky, B.; Lamb, H. Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume: 83 p.: 58-67 (2014)
Glacial forcing of central Indonesian hydroclimate since 60,000 yr B.P, Russell, J.M.; Vogel, H.; Konecky, B.L.; Bijaksana, S.; Huang, Y.; Melles, M.; Wattrus, N.; Costa, K.; King, J.W. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science p.: 2-7 (2014)
Hydrological connectivity and mixing of Lake Towuti, Indonesia in response to paleoclimatic changes over the last 60,000 years, Costa, K.; Russell, J.; Vogel, H.; Bijaksana, S. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (2014)
Daniel Rasmussen
Personal Information
Daniel
Rasmussen
Graduate Student
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Geochemistry
Contact Information
107 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8454

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

Fields of interest: 

Volcanology, Igneous Petrology, Geochemistry

I have broad interests in the fields of volcanism, magmatism, and tectonics. My work in these fields covers several topics that largely fit into two areas. First, I examine the P-T-X-t path of magmas prior to eruption, which I approach using solubility barometers, crystal-melt thermometers, and diffusion chronometers. Second, I investigate the origin and role of volatiles in magmatic systems. My favorite tool is melt inclusions, which provide a unique means for directly measuring the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mama. Central to my work is the chemical and textural analysis of macrocrysts, at both the individual crystal and population scales, and integrating my results with those of other disciplines (e.g., seismology, remote sensing).

Education
M. Phil. in Earth Science
Columbia University
2018
M.S. in Geology
New Mexico Tech
2014
B.S. with Honors in Geological Sciences
University of Oregon
2012
Galen McKinley
Personal Information
Galen
McKinley
Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Geochemistry
Contact Information
429 Comer
61 Route 9 W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8585

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

Fields of interest: 

carbon cycle, marine biogeochemistry, ocean circulation

Professor McKinley studies the mechanisms of the carbon cycle in the global oceans and Great Lakes, with her research lying at the intersection of physical and chemical oceanography. Her primary tools are numerical models and analysis of large datasets. More specifically, her research addresses the physical drivers of ecosystem and carbon cycle variability in the North Atlantic, global oceans and Great Lakes. Professor McKinley is a member of the faculty at Columbia University and the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory; she was previously at University of Wisconsin – Madison. In addition to research and teaching, Professor McKinley frequently contributes to national and international scientific coordination and offers scientific advice to policy-makers.

Education
PhD
MIT
2002
BS
Rice University
1995
Sebastian Vivancos
Personal Information
Sebastian
M.
Vivancos
Graduate Student
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Geochemistry
Contact Information
423 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8793

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

Fields of interest: 

Chemical Oceanography, Isotope Geochemistry, Marine Biogeochemistry, Paleoclimatology
Education
M.Phil. Earth and Environmental Sciences
Columbia University
2018
M.A. Earth and Environmental Sciences
Columbia University
2016
B.A. Earth Science and Chemistry
Columbia University
2013
Selected Publications:
Intense hydrothermal scavenging of 230Th and 231Pa in the deep Southeast Pacific, Pavia, Frank J.; Anderson, Robert F.; Vivancos, Sebastian M.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Lu, Yanbin; Cheng, Hai; Zhang, Pu; Edwards, R. Lawrence Marine Chemistry, Volume: 201 p.: 212–228 (2018) doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2017.08.003
Intensity of Th and Pa scavenging partitioned by particle chemistry in the North Atlantic Ocean, Hayes, Christopher T.; Anderson, Robert F.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Vivancos, Sebastian M.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Robinson, Laura F.; Lu, Yanbin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Moran, S. Bradley Marine Chemistry, Volume: 170 p.: 49–60 (2015) doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2015.01.006
Peter B. Kelemen
Personal Information
Peter
B.
Kelemen
Arthur D. Storke Memorial Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Geochemistry
Contact Information
211 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8728

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155

 

 
Fields of interest: CO2 capture and storage via in situ mineral carbonation in peridotite and basalt; melting and reactive melt transport in the Earth's mantle and lower crust; igneous processes in forming the Earth's crust; density instabilities, ductile deformation and evolution of the lower crust; subduction zone geotherms; and the mechanisms for intermediate depth earthquakes.
 
Recently, I have added mineral carbonation and hydration in peridotite and mafic rocks to my research program. This is a reactive transport problem, very similar to the work I've done on reactive transport of melt in the upper mantle and lower crust, there are fantastic field areas where active, ongoing mineral carbonation and hydration can be observed, and the physical mechanisms that control key processes are not well understood. We are focusing on understanding processes in natural systems, particularly “reaction driven cracking”, with relevance to engineered geological capture and storage of CO2, stimulation of geothermal reservoirs, in situ mining, and extraction of hydrocarbon resources from tight formations.
 
For decades, my primary research interest has been in the genesis and evolution of the Earth's crust in the ocean basins, in arcs, and in continents. I approach this topic from the perspective that reactions between melt and rock during transport through the upper mantle are as important as melting, mixing, and crystal fractionation processes in producing different crustal bulk compositions in different tectonic settings. I’ve been fascinated by the stark compositional difference between oceanic and continental crust, and in my research I have gravitated toward end-member examples of magmatic processes: oceanic spreading ridges, and subduction-related volcanic arcs such as the Aleutians where the composition of average lavas and exposed plutonic rocks closely resembles continental crust.  In an ongoing effort, I've tried to develop a general theory that explains how reactive melt transport varies along different geothermal gradients, with, 1. mineral dissolution and focusing of flow into high permeability channels in hot, upwelling mantle, 2. diffuse flow where there is a low melt flux into conductively cooled, shallow mantle, and, 3. hydrofracture where high melt flux and crystallization due to cooling clog porosity, leading to ponding of magma and increasing melt pressure. I’ve also become very interested in gravitational instabilities that can remove dense lithologies from the base of the crust, and transport buoyant subducted sediments and felsic igneous rocks from subduction zones back into the crust, and I hope to pursue investigations of metasediments in lower crustal granulite terrains: how do they get down there?
 
In studying layered intrusions and lower oceanic crust, I’ve tried to understand a few of the many possible mechanisms for forming both compositional and modal layering in gabbros, via injection of layer parallel sills, and via sudden changes in pressure that can modify the assemblage of minerals precipitating from a cooling magma. This research led to general ideas about formation of oceanic crust, via a “sheeted sills” mechanism in which the lower crust crystallizes from many small sills, injected at depths throughout the crust. This end-member process stands in contrast to the “gabbro glacier” hypothesis, in which all oceanic plutonic rocks crystallize in a single, shallow melt lens and undergo ductile flow downward and outward to “fill” the lower crust. A related issue is the mode of cooling of the oceanic lower crust; via conduction with limited, diffuse fluid flow, or via rapid, focused hydrothermal convection. Trying to quantify and constrain these hypotheses, and to determine which processes predominate in different tectonic settings, has motivated a lot of research over the past 15 years.
I've been very fortunate to work with a large number of tolerant geophysicists (Jack Whitehead, Einat Aharonov, Steve Holbrook, Marc Spiegelman, Greg Hirth, Jun Korenaga, Matthew Jull, and others) who have led me into the world of geodynamics. I am grateful to them all, particularly Greg Hirth, with whom I have been able to pursue interdisciplinary studies.
 
Finally, not that long ago, I was a founding partner of Dihedral Exploration, mineral exploration consultants specializing in field work requiring technical climbing skills. Searching for ore deposits took me to British Columbia, Alaska and Greenland. I've recently started teaching a new course, Earth Resources for Sustainable Development, which covers some of that field, as well as energy resources, water, soil and fertilizer. I’ve been writing general articles and giving public presentations on this topic
 
 

 

Education
Ph.D.
University of Washington
Master of Science
University of Washington
Bachelor of Arts
Dartmouth
Selected Publications:
The seismic mid-lithosphere discontinuity, Selway, K; Ford, H; Kelemen, P. Earth and Planetary Science Letters , Volume: 414 p.: 45-57 (2015)
Distinctly different parental magmas for calc-alkaline plutons and tholeiitic lavas in the central and eastern Aleutian arc, Cai, Yue; Rioux, Matthew; Kelemen, Peter B.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Bolge, Louise; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume: 431 (2015) 10.1016/j.epsl.2015.07.058
Constraints on the composition of the Aleutian arc lower crust from VP/VS, Shillington, D.J., Van Avendonk, H.J.A.; Behn, M.D., Kelemen, P.B.; Jagoutz, O. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume: 40 p.: 2579–2584 (2013) 10.1002/grl.50375
Reaction-driven cracking during retrograde metamorphism: Olivine hydration and carbonation, Kelemen, P.B. and G. Hirth Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume: 345–348 p.: p. 81 (2012)
Coexisting serpentine and quartz from carbonate-bearing serpentinized peridotite in the Samail Ophiolite, Oman, Streit, E.; Kelemen, P.B.; Eiler, J. Mineralogy and Petrology, Volume: 164 (2012)
Differentiation of the continental crust by relamination, Hacker, B. R.; Kelemen, P. B.; Behn, M. D. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 06/02/2011, Volume: 307 p.: 15 (2011)
Rates and Mechanisms of Mineral Carbonation in Peridotite: Natural Processes and Recipes for Enhanced, in situ CO2 Capture and Storage, Kelemen, P.B.; Matter, J.; Streit, E.E.; Rudge, J.F.; Curry, W.B.; Blusztajn, J. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume: 39 p.: 93 (2011)
Diapirs as the source of the sediment signature in arc lavas, Behn, M.D.; Kelemen, P.B.; Hirth, G.; Hacker, B.R.; Massonne, H. Nature Geoscience, Volume: 4 (2011)
The case for reactive crystallization at mid-ocean ridges, Collier, M. L.; Kelemen, P. B. Journal of Petrology (2010)
Rates and mechanisms of peridotite carbonation: preliminary data from Oman, recipes for enhanced, in situ CO2 capture & storage, and avenues for continued research, Kelemen, P B; Streit, L; Matter, J; Rudge, J; Curry, W; Blusztajn, J Annual Reviews of Earth & Planetary Science (2010)
Investigation of the strength contrast at the Moho: A case study from the Oman Ophiolite, Homburg, J.; Hirth, G.; Kelemen, P.B Geology, Volume: 38 (2010)
Microstructural and rheological evolution of a mantle shear zone, Skemer, P.; Warren, J.; Kelemen, P.B.; Hirth, G. Journal of Petrology, Volume: 51 (2010)
Trapped melt in the Josephine peridotite: Implications for permeability and melt extraction in the upper mantle, Sundberg, M,; Hirth, G.; Kelemen, P.B. Journal of Petrology, Volume: 51 (2010)
A felsic end to Bushveld differentiation, VanTongeren, J.; Mathez, E.; Kelemen, P.B. Journal of Petrology, Volume: 51 (2010)
Enhanced in situ carbonation of peridotite for permanent CO2 storage, Matter, J. M.; Kelemen, P. B. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta Jun, Volume: 73, Issue: 13 p.: A848-A848 (2009)
Permanent storage of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs by mineral carbonation, Matter, J M; Kelemen, P B Nature Geoscience, Volume: 2 p.: 837-841 (2009)
Cooling rates in the lower crust of the Oman ophiolite: Ca in olivine, revisited, VanTongeren, J. A.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hanghoj, K. Earth and Planetary Science Letters Mar 1, Volume: 267, Issue: 1-2 p.: 69-82 (2008) DOI 10.1016/j.epsi.2007.11.034
Microstructures in Hole 1274A peridotites, ODP Leg 209, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Tracking the fate of melts percolating in peridotite as the lithosphere is intercepted, Suhr, G.; Kelemen, P.; Paulick, H. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems Mar 18, Volume: 9 p.: - (2008) Doi 10.1029/2007gc001726
Reconstruction of the Talkeetna intraoceanic arc of Alaska through thermobarometry, Hacker, B. R.; Mehl, L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Rioux, M.; Behn, M. D.; Luffi, P. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth Mar 7, Volume: 113, Issue: B3 p.: - (2008) Doi 10.1029/2007jb005208
Recycled crust controls contrasting source compositions of Mesozoic and Cenozoic basalts in the North China Craton, Liu, Y. S.; Gao, S.; Kelemen, P. B.; Xu, W. L. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta May 1, Volume: 72, Issue: 9 p.: 2349-2376 (2008) DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2008.02.018
Geochemistry and magmatic history of eclogues and ultramafic rocks from the Chinese continental scientific drill hole: Subduction and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism of lower crustal cumulates, Liu, Y. S.; Zong, K. Q.; Kelemen, P. B.; Gao, S. Chemical Geology Jan 15, Volume: 247, Issue: 1-2 p.: 133-153 (2008) DOI 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.10.016
In situ carbonation of peridotite for CO2 storage, Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 11/2008, Volume: 105, Issue: 45 p.: 17295-17300 (2008)
In situ carbonation of peridotite for CO2 storage, Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Nov 11, Volume: 105, Issue: 45 p.: 17295-17300 (2008) DOI 10.1073/pnas.0805794105
Melt-peridotite reaction in the mantle: Grain-scale processes and geological applications, Liang, Y.; Lo Cascio, M.; Morgan, Z.; Peng, Q. L.; Kelemen, P. Journal of China University of Geosciences Jun, Volume: 18 p.: 194-197 (2007)
Nonvolcanic seafloor spreading and corner-flow rotation accommodated by extensional faulting at 15 degrees N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A structural synthesis of ODP Leg 209, Schroeder, T.; Cheadle, M. J.; Dick, H. J. B.; Faul, U.; Casey, J. F.; Kelemen, P. B. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems Jun 28, Volume: 8 p.: - (2007) Doi 10.1029/2006gc001567
A periodic shear-heating mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes in the mantle, Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G. Nature Apr 12, Volume: 446, Issue: 7137 p.: 787-790 (2007) Doi 10.1038/Nature05717
Trace elements in clinopyroxenes from Aleutian xenoliths: Implications for primitive subduction magmatism in an island arc, Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B. Earth and Planetary Science Letters Apr 30, Volume: 256, Issue: 3-4 p.: 617-632 (2007) DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.02.015
Trench-parallel anisotropy produced by foundering of arc lower crust, Behn, M. D.; Hirth, G.; Kelemen, P. B. Science Jul 6, Volume: 317, Issue: 5834 p.: 108-111 (2007) DOI 10.1126/science.1141269
Ultra-depleted, shallow cratonic mantle beneath West Greenland: dunitic xenoliths from Ubekendt Ejland, Bernstein, S.; Hanghoj, K.; Kelemen, P. B.; Brooks, C. K. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology Sep, Volume: 152, Issue: 3 p.: 335-347 (2006) DOI 10.1007/s00410-006-0109-0

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