Lecture Schedule - Spring 2017

Many reserve readings accessible on CourseWorks
Jan. 17
T First day of class: Floor of the Ocean (bathymetry, physiographic provinces and crustal structure within Plate Tectonics context) The Floor of the Ocean powerpoint File

Download and get familiar with GeoMapApp application (http://www.geomapapp.org) and Google Earth application (http://earth.google.com/)

Homework 1 posted - Due Jan. 26th PDF


  • GeoMapApp User Guide (http://www.geomapapp.org/GMA/newHelp/UserGuide_GMA3.3.0_Nov2012.htm)
  • W. Smith and D. Sandwell, 2003, Conventional bathymetry, bathymetry from space and geodetic altimetry, Oceanography, v. 17, p. 8-23. pdf
  • Crowley et al., 2015, Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust, Science. pdf
  • E. Hand, 2015, Seafloor grooves record the beat of the ice ages, Science. pdf
  • J. Goff, 2015, Comment on "Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust, Science. pdf
  • Crowley et al., 2015, Response to Comment on......., Science. pdf
  • M. Tolstoy, 2016, Comment on "Sensitivity of seafloor bathymetry to climate-driven fluctuations in mid-ocean ridge magma supply", Science. pdf

Optional Reading

  • B. Heezen and M. Tharp, 1965, Tectonic Fabric of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Continental Drift, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., volume 258, Pages 90-106. pdf
  • W. Smith and D. Sandwell, 1997, Global Sea Floor Topography from Satellite Altimetry and Ship Depth Soundings, Science, volume 277, Pages 1956-1962. pdf
  • Y. J. Tan et al., 2016, Dynamics of a seafloor-spreading episode at the East Pacific Rise, Nature, volume 540, Pages 261-266. pdf
  • Soundings: The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped the Ocean Floor
  • Raymo
    Jan. 19
    Th Ocean Floor Age Distribution, Depth Relationships, Sediment Thickness & Global Patterns within Plate Tectonics context Ocean Floor Age Distribution powerpoint File


    • W. C. Pitman, E. Herron, and J. Heirtzler, 1968, Magnetic Anomalies in the Pacific and Sea Floor Spreading, JGR, volume 73, Pages 2069-2085. pdf
    • D. Rowley, 2004, Rate of plate creation and destruction: 180 Ma to present, GSA Bulletin, volume 114, Pages 927-933. pdf
    • Muller et al., 1996, Age of the Ocean Floor map pdf
    • Mid-Cretaceous seafloor spreading pulse: fact or fiction?, Geology, volume 37, Pages 687-690. pdf

    Optional Reading

    Jan. 24

    Overview of Sediment Types and distributions (biogenic, terrigenous, authigenic, diagenetic, volcanogenic, hemipelagic, aeolian, glaciogenic, prodelta, contourites, turbidites, debris flow deposits). Ocean Sediment Types powerpoint File


    • Dutkiewicz, A., et al., Census of seafloor sediments in the world's ocean, Geology, 2015 pdf

    Optional Readings:

    • Maher, B.A., 2010, Global connections between aeolian dust, climate, and ocean biogeochemistry at the present day and the last glacial maximum, Earth Science Reviews, v. 99, p. 61-97 pdf
    • Weaver, P. et al., 2000, Continental margin sedimentation, with special reference to the north-east Atlantic margin, Sedimentology, v. 47, p. 239-256 pdf
    • Weninger et al., The catastrophic final flooding of Doggerland by the Storegga Slide tsunami, Documenta Praehistorica, 2008. pdf
    • Muhs, Daniel. R, 2013, The geologic records of dust in the Quaternary, Aeolian Research, v. 9, p. 3-48. pdf
    • Rea, D., 1994, The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea: the geologic history of wind, Revs. of Geophysics, v. 32, p. 159-195. pdf
    • Obrochta, S. et al., 2012, A re-examination of evidence for the North Atlantic "1500-year cycle" at Site 609, Quat. Science Rev., v. 55, p. 23-33. pdf
    • Paytan, A, S. Mearon, K. Cobb, and M. Kastner, 2002, Origin of marine barite deposits: Sr and S isotope characterization, Geology, v. 30, p. 747-750. pdf
    • Heezen, B. and M. Ewing, 1952, Turbidity currents and submarine slumps, and the 1929 Grand Banks Earthquake, Am. J. Sci, v. 250, p. 849-873 pdf
    • Hasegawa, H., and H. Kanamori, 1987, Source mechanism of the magnitude 7.2 Grand Banks earthquake of November 1929: double couple or submarine landslide, Bull. Seis. Soc. Amer., v. 77, p. 1984-2004 pdf
    • deMenocal, P., W. Ruddiman, and D. Kent, 1990, Depth of post-depositional remanence acquisition in deep-sea sediments: a case of the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal and oxygen isotopic Stage 19.1, EPSL, v. 99, pa. 1-13. pdf
    Jan. 26
    Biogenic Calcite production and deposition (CCD, Lysocline, basin-basin fractionation). Proxies for reconstructing changes in ocean carbonate chemistry Carbonate deposition powerpoint file


    • Archer, D. 1996. An atlas of the distribution of calcium carbonate in sediments in the deep-sea. Global. Biogeochem. Cycles.v. 10 (1), 159-174. PDF

    Optional Readings:

    • Seibold, E. and Berger, W., 1993. The Seafloor. Chapter 8 "Deep-sea sediments - patterns, processes, and stratigraphic methods" pp. 215-236.* Open University, 1999. Chapter 3 Deep-sea sediments. pp. 61-76. (PDF)
    • Berger, W. H. and E. L. Winterer, 1974. Plate stratigraphy and the fluctuating carbonate line, in Pelagic Sediments, On land and Under the Sea, Pub # 1, K.J. Hsu and H. C. Jenkyns (eds), International Association of Sedimentologists, pp. 11-98.
    • Sigman, D.M, Boyle, E.A., 2000. Glacial-Interglaciual variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Nature, 407, pp. 859-869 (PDF).
    • Broecker, W.S. 2004. The Oceanic CaCO3 cycle. Treatise in Geochemistry (PDF)
    • Sexton and Barker, 2012. Onset of 'Pacific-style' deep-sea sedimentary carbonate cycles
      at the mid-Pleistocene transition. EPSL, 321-322, P. 81-94, 19 (PDF)
    • Homework 1: Due
    Jan. 31

    Sources and distributions of Biogenic Sediments, nutrients in the ocean, and sediment trap particle fluxes. Biogenic Sedimentation powerpoint File


    • DeMaster, D. The diagenesis of biogenic silica. Treatise on Geochemistry (Elsevier). pp. 87-98. (PDF)
    • Kennett, J. P., 1982. Biogenic and Authigenic oceanic sediments, in Marine Geology, J. P. Kennett, Chapter 14, pp. 455-503.
    • Seibold, E. and Berger, W., 1993. The Seafloor. Chapter 8 "Deep-sea sediments - patterns, processes, and stratigraphic methods" pp. 215-236.* Open University, 1999. Chapter 3 Deep-sea sediments. pp. 61-76. (PDF)
    • Archer, D., 2004. Biological fluxes in the ocean and atmospheric pCO2. Treatise on Geochemistry (Elsevier), pp. 275-291. PDF

    Homework 2 posted: Due Feb. 9th (PDF)

    Feb. 2

    Proxies for ocean chemistry and climate: oxygen isotopes and Mg/Ca. McManus Powerpoint file.


    • Ravelo, A. C., and Hillaire-Marcel, C., 2007, The use of oxygen and carbon isotopes of foraminifera, Chapter Eighteen in Paleoceanography: Developments in Marine Geology, v. 1, p. 735-764.(PDF)
    • Lea, D., 2003, 6.14, Elemental and Isotopic Proxies of Past Ocean Temperatures: Treatise on Geochemistry, Volume 6; pp. 365–390 Pergamon, Oxford.(PDF)
    • Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E., and Billups, K., 2001, Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present: Science, v. 292, no. 5517, p. 686-693. (PDF)
    • Optional Readings:

      • Emiliani, C., 1955, Pleistocene temperatures: Journal of Geology, v. 63, no. 6, p. 539-578. pdf
      • Shackleton, N. J., 1967, Oxygen isotope analyses and Pleistocene temperatures re-assessed: Nature, v. 215, p. 15-17. pdf
      • Lisiecki, L., and Raymo, M. E., 2005, A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records: Paleoceanography, v. 20, p. PA1003. pdf
    Feb. 7

    Organic Carbon: Productivity, Preservation, Burial, Bioturbation, Sapropels, N-isotopes.

    Organic Carbon sedimentation PowerPoint file


    • The Biological Pump, Pages 1-29, C.L. De La Rocha. Treatise on Geochemistry (PDF)
    • Biological Fluxes in the Ocean and Atmospheric pCO2, Pages 275-291, D. Archer (PDF)
    • Sachs, J. and Repeta, D., 1999. Oligotrophy and nitrogen fixation during eastern Mediterranean sapropel events. Science, 286, pp. 2485-2488) (PDF).
    • Cita, M.B., 1991. Anoxic basins of the eastern Mediterranean: An overview, Paleoceanography, v. 6, pp 133-142.
    Feb. 9

    Pore Water Geochemistry, Sediment-Water Interactions, and Redox Reactions.(Pore water geochemistry)


    • Emerson, S. and Hedges, J. Sediment diagenesis and benthic flux. Treatise on Geochemistry (Elsevier). pp. 300-319. (PDF)
    • Martin, W.R. and Sayles, F.L. The recycling of biogenic material at the seafloor. Treatise on Geochemistry (Elsevier). pp. 37-65. (PDF).
    Feb. 14

    Principles of Paleomagnetic, Lithologic, Isotope and Bio- Stratigraphy: Part 1 (PPT)


    • Ellis et al., 2016, Involve social scientists in defining the Anthropocene, Nature (PDF)
    • Ruddiman et al., 2015, Defining the epoch we live in, Science (PDF)
    • Lucy Edwards, What is the Anthropocene, EOS, 2015 (link)
    • Gradstein, F. and J. Ogg, 2004, Geologic Time Scale 2004 -- why, how, and where next! Lethaia, v. 37, 175-181. (PDF)
    • Owen, D., 2009, How to use stratigraphic terminology in papers, illustrations, and talks. Stratigraphy, v. 6, p. 106-116. (PDF).
    • Divisions of Geologic Time -- Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units, USGS Fact Sheet 2007-3015 (2007) (PDF).
    • 2009 Geologic Time Scale (PDF).

    Optional Readings:

    • Berggren, W.A. et al., 1995, Late Neogene chronology: New perspectives in high-resolution stratigraphy, GSA Bull., v. 107, p. 1272-1287. (PDF)
    • S. Lewis and M. Maslin, 2015, Defining the Anthropocene , Nature, v. 519, p. 171-180. (PDF)
    • Aubry, M.P., 2016, Cenozoic chronostratigraphic terminology: In defense of formal subseries, Stratigraphy (PDF)

    Feb. 16

    Fundamental Sediment Properties (physical, chemical, magnetic, organic, grain size, proxies of provenance). Phys.Props powerpoint file. (updated)


    • Harris, S., King, T., Mix, A.C. Biogenic and terrigenous sedimentation at Ceara Rise, western tropical Atlantic, supports Pliocene-Pleistocene deep-water linkage between hemispheres. ODP Sci. Res. Vol. 154, pp. 331-345. (PDF)
    • Harris, S.and Mix, A.C. Precipitation balance in the Amazon Basin recorded in deep-sea sediments.Quat. Res. 51, pp. 14-26. (PDF)
    • Moran, K. Elastic Property corrections applied to Leg 154 sediments, Ceara Rise. ODP Sci. Res. Vol. 154, pp. 331-345. (PDF).

    Homework 3 posted: Due Feb. 23th (DOC, XLS template)

      Feb. 17 F (am)

    First Lab at LDEO: The Lamont-Doherty Core Repository & Marine Sediments. Please plan to take the 9am shuttle bus to Lamont, arriving at 10am. The lab will be over in time for you to take the 1pm shuttle back to Columbia (Shuttle Schedule). We'll have a tour of the Lamont Core Repository and an overview of marine sediments as well as recovery and analysis techniques.

    Note: To get to the Repository enter the front door of the Geoscience Bldg where the bus drops you off. Proceed straight to end of hallway on left side of lobby. Descend stairs through door on left to Repository. Turn right.

    deMenocal & Raymo
    Feb. 21

    Principles of Paleomagnetic, Lithologic, Isotope and Bio- Stratigraphy: Part 2
    PPT file


    • Imbrie et al., 1984, The Orbital Theory of Pleistocene Climate: Support from a revised chronology of the marine d18O record. (PDF)
    • Shackleton et al., 1990, An Alternative astronomical calibration of the lower Pleistocene timescale based on ODP Site 677. (PDF)
    • Astrochron software developed by Dr. Stephen Meyers (Link to website)

    Optional Reading

  • Cande, S. and D. Kent, 1992, A New Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, JGR, v. 97, pp. 13917-13951. (PDF)
  • Ruddiman, W., D. Cameron, and B. Clement, 1986, Sediment disturbance and correlation of offset holes drilled with the hydraulic piston corer: Leg 94 (PDF)
  • Analyseries and ARAND software packages can be found at this link: (link)
  • Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery (Take it out of the library!)
  • Raymo
    Feb. 23

    Chronostratigraphy and orbital tuning (same ppt file as prior lecture)

    • Lourens, L., et al., 1994. Evaluation of the Plio-Pleistocene astonomical timescale. Paleoceanography, 11, pp. 391-413. (PDF)
    • Lisiecki, L. and Raymo, M. 2005. A Plio-Pleistocene Stack of 57 Globally Distributed
      Benthic d18O Records, Paleoceanography, v. 20. (PDF)
    • Pälike, H. et al., 2006. Heartbeat of the Oligocene climate system. Science, 314, 1894. (PDF)

    Homework 3 due


    Feb. 28
    Principles of downhole logging (tools, methods, data analysis). powerpoint


    • Goldberg, D., 1997, The role of downhole measurements in marine geology and geophysics, Reviews of Geophysics, v. 35, no. 3, p. 315-342. PDF
    • deMenocal, P., Bristow, J., and Stein, R. Paleoclimatic applications of downhole logs: Plio-Pleistocene results from Hole 798B, Sea of Japan. In: Piscotto, K.A., Ingle, J.C. Jr., von Breymann, M.T., Barron, J., et al. Proceedings ODP, Scientific Results, 127/128, Pt. 1: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program); 393-408, 1992. PDF
    Mar. 2

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (K-T Event powerpoint file)


    • Zachos, J. et al.(2001) Trends, Rhythms, and abberations in global climate, 65 Ma to present. Science, 292, 686-693. (PDF).
    • D'Hondt, S. et al. (1998). Organic carbon fluxes and the ecological recovery from the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction. Science. 282, pp.276-279. (PDF).
    • Schulte, P. et al., 2010. The Chicxulub asteroid impact and mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Science, 327 (1214-1218 (PDF)

    LiveScience News (March 23, 2013) - Comet, Not Asteroid, Killed Dinosaurs, Study Suggests

      Mar 3 F (10-12)

    Second Lab at LDEO: G. menardii stratigraphy: Sampling, processing of sediments and microscopic identification. (W4937.menardii.lab.doc). Please plan to take the 9am shuttle bus to Lamont, arriving at 10am. The lab will be over in time for you to take the 1pm shuttle back to Columbia (Shuttle Schedule).

    Note: We will meet in the Sampling Lab of the Lamont-Doherty Core Repository at 10-12 on Friday. Complete lab is due on March 9 in class.

    Mar. 7

    Sealevel (PPT)


    • Laskar, J., et al., 2004, A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth, Astr. and Astrophys., v. 428, pp. 261-285. (please just peruse) (PDF)
    • Miller, K., et al., The Phanerozoic Record of Global Sea-Level Change, Science, v. 310, pp. 1293. (PDF)
    • Moucha, R. et al., 2008, Dynamic Topography and long-term sea-level variations: There is no such thing as a stable continental platform, EPSL, v. 271, pp. 101-108. (PDF)

    Assigned Viewing

  • A Eulogy for Eustasy, by Jerry Mitrovica, AGU Birch Lecture, 2009 link
  • Raymo
    Mar. 9

    1 hour MID-TERM EXAM 

    Mar. 14
    Spring Break
    Mar. 16
    Spring Break
    Mar. 21

     Evolution of the Atmosphere and Life over the Phanerozoic (PDF file)


    • Walker, J. et al., 1981. A Negative Feedback Mechanism for the Long-term Stabilization of Earth's Surface Temperature, JGR, v. 86, pp. 9776-9782 (PDF).
    • Optional Reading

    • Donald Eugene Canfield. The early history of atmospheric oxygen: homage to Robert M. Garrels. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 33:1–36, 2005.(PDF).
    • James Farquhar and Boswell A Wing. Multiple sulfur isotopes and the evolution of the atmosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 213(1):1–13, 2003. (PDF).
    • Lee R Kump and Michael A Arthur. Interpreting carbon-isotope excursions: carbonates and organic matter. Chemical Geology, 161(1):181–198, 1999. (PDF).
      Mar. 23

      The Carbonate-Silicate Weathering Cycle and the History of CO2 in the Atmosphere: Part 1 (PPT file)


      • Berner, R. et al., 1983, The Carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years, Amer. J. Sci, v. 283, p. 641-683. (PDF).
      • Raymo, M. E. et al., 1992, Tectonic forcing of late Cenozoic climate, Nature, v. 359, p. 117-122. (PDF).
      • Raymo, M. E. et al., 1993, Cooling in the late Cenozoic - Correspondence, Nature, v. 361, p. 123-124. (PDF).
        Mar. 28

        The Carbonate-Silicate Weathering Cycle and the History of CO2 in the Atmosphere: Part 2 (PPT file)


        • Misra S. and P. Froelich, 2012, Lithium isotope history of Cenozoic seawater: changes in silicate weathering and reverse weathering, Science, v. 335, pp. 818-823 (PDF).
        • Li, G. and H. Elderfield, 2013, Evolution of carbon cycle over the past 100 million years, GCA, v. 103, pp. 11-25. (PDF).
        • Optional Homework (PDF)

          Mar. 30

          Hothouse climate: The early Cenozoic "Greenhouse World" (Eocene thermal optimum powerpoint file).


          • Anagnostou, E. et al., 2016, Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate, Nature, 533, 380-384. (PDF)
          • Zachos, J. et al.(2001) Trends, Rhythms, and abberations in global climate, 65 Ma to present. Science, 292, 686-693. (PDF)
          • Sexton et al., 2011. Eocene global warming events driven by ventilation of dissolved organic carbon. Nature, 471 (349-352) (PDF)
          • Zachos, J.C., Stott, L., and Lohmann, K.C., 1994, Evolution of early Cenozoic marine temperatures: Paleoceanography, v. 9, p. 353-387. (PDF)
          Apr. 4

          Hothouse climate: Paleocean-Eocene Thermal Maximum event (PETM powerpoint file)

          Required Reading

          • Pagani et al., 2006. An ancient carbon mystery. Science, 314 (PDF).
          • Kennett, J. and Stott, L.D., 1991. Abrupt deep-sea warming, paleoceanographic changes, and benthic extinctions at the end of the Palaeocene. Nature, 353, 255-259. (PDF).
          • Dickens et al., 1995. Dissassociation of oceanic methane clathrate as a cause of the carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene. Paleoceanography, 18, 6, 965-971 (PDF).
          • Zachos, J.C., et al., 2005. Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Science, 308, pp. 1611-1616 (PDF).

          Suggested Reading

          Kvenvolden, K.A. Gas hydrates - Geological perspective and global change, Review of Geophysics, 31, 2, 173-187. (PDF)

          How do total human C emissions since the industrial revolution compare to the ~1400-2800 Gt PETM carbon release?


          Apr. 6

          The Late Cenozoic "Icehouse World": Oligocene to Miocene (AA Glaciation) PPT file

          Required Reading:

          • Lear, C., et al., 2008. Cooling and ice growth across the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Geology (PDF).
          • Beerling, D. and D. Royer, 2011. Convergent Cenozoic CO2 history, Nature Geoscience (PDF).
          • Merico, A., et al., 2008. Eocene/Oligocene ocean de-acidification linked to Antarctic glaciation by sea-level fall, Nature (PDF).
          • Palike, H., et al., 2006. The heartbeat of the Oligocene climate system. Science, 314, pp. 1895-1898. (PDF).
          • DeConto, R.M., Pollard, D., Wilson, P., Palike, H. Lear, C., Pagani, M. 2008. Thresholds for Cenozoic biopolar glaciation. Nature, 455, pp. 652-657. (PDF)

          Suggested Reading

        • DeConto, R.M. and Pollard, D., 2003. Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature, 421, pp.425-249. (PDF).
        • Raymo
          Apr. 11

          The Pliocene Warm Period and the Intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation: Part 1 (powerpoint file)

          Required Reading

          • Wara, M. Ravelo, A.C., Delaney, M.L., 2005, Permanent El-Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene warm period. Science, 309. pp. 758-761. (PDF)
          • A. V. Fedorov et al., 2013, Patterns and mechanisms of early Pliocene warmth, Nature 496, 43–49(PDF).
        • Zhang, Y., M. Pagani, and Z. Liu, 2014, A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean, Science, 344. pp. 84-87. (PDF)
        • Ravelo, A.C., K. Lawrence, A. Federov, H. Ford, 2014, Comment on "A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean", Science, 346. p. 1467. (PDF)
        • Lea, D., 2014, Not so permanent El Nino, Perspectives, Science, 344. pp. 52-53. (PDF)
        • Of interest

        • Lear, C., et al., 2015. Neogene ice volume and ocean temperatures: Insights from infaunal foraminiferal Mg/Ca paleothermometry. Paleoceanography (PDF).
        • Cane, M. A. and P. Molnar (2001). "Closing of the Indonesian Seaway as precursor to East African aridification around 3-4 million years ago." Nature 411: 157-162.(PDF)

          Philander, S. and A. Fedorov (2003). "Role of tropics in changing the response to Milankovitch forcing some three million years ago." Paleoceanography 18(2): 1045. (PDF)

        • Naish, T., and a whole bunch of coauthors, 2009. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. Nature, 458, pp. 322-329. (PDF).
        • Brierley et al (2009) Greatly Expanded Tropical Warm Pool and Weakened Hadley Circulation in the Early Pliocene Science, 323, 1714 DOI: 10.1126/science.1167625 (PDF).

        • Liu, Z. H. and T. D. Herbert (2004). "High-latitude influence on the eastern equatorial Pacific climate in the early Pleistocene epoch." Nature 427(6976): 720-723. (PDF)
        • Ravelo, A., D. Andreasen, et al. (2004). "Regional climate shifts caused by gradual global coolng in the Pliocene epoch." Nature 429: 263-267. (PDF)


          Apr. 13

          The Pliocene Warm Period and the Intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation: Part 2 (PPT)


        • Ruddiman, W., 2010, A Paleoclimatic Enigma? Science, v. 328, p. 838. (PDF).
        • Haug, G. H., D. M. Sigman, et al. (2005). North Pacific Seasonality and the glaciation of North America 2.7 million years ago. Nature, 433, 821-825. (PDF).
        • Raymo, M. E. (1994). The initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Ann. Rev. Earth and Planet. Sci. 22: 353-383. (PDF).
        • Optional Reading

        • Zeebe, R., and K. Caldeira (2008). Close mass balance of long-term carbon fluxes from ice core CO2 and ocean chemistry records, Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo185 (PDF).

        • Raymo
          Apr. 18

          African climate change over the last 5 Ma and implications for human origins (PDF)


          • deMenocal, P.B. (2011). Climate and human evolution. Science, 331 (540). (PDF)
          • Brierley, C., M. and Fedorov, A.V. (2010) Relative importance of meridional and zonal SST gradients for the onset of the ice ages and Pliocene-Pleistocene climate evolution. Paleoceanography, 25 (PDF).
          • deMenocal (2014) Scientific American (PDF)

          Nature News: The Drying of East Africa (link)

          Apr. 20

          Pleistocene Climate Evolution including 41ka-world, the 100-kyr world and Mid-Pleistocene Transition: Part 1 (powerpoint file)


        • Raymo, M. and Nisancioglu, K., 2003, The 41 kyr World: Milankovitch's other unsolved mystery. Paleoceanography, 18(1), PP. (PDF)
        • Huybers, P. and Wunsch, C., 2005. Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminations. Nature, 434, pp. 491-495. (PDF).
        • Raymo, M., L. Lisiecki, and Nisancioglu, K., 2006, Pli-Pleistocene Ice volume, Antarctic climate, and the global d18O record. Science, 313, PP. 492 (PDF)
        • Raymo
          Apr. 25

          Pleistocene Climate Evolution including 41ka-world, the 100-kyr world and Mid-Pleistocene Transition: Part 2 (powerpoint file)


        • Clark, P. and D. Pollard, Origin of the middle Pleistocene transition by ice sheet erosion of regolith. Paleoceanography, 13, PP. 1-9 (PDF)
        • Elderfield et al., Evolution of Ocean Temperature and Ice Volume through the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition, Science, 337, 2012(PDF)
        • Raymo
          April 27

          Deglacial ITCZ shifts, North African climate change, and cultural impacts (PDF)

          Arbuszewski, J. A., deMenocal, P. B., Cleroux, C., Bradtmiller, L. & Mix, A. Meridional shifts of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone since the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature Geoscience 6, 959–962 (2013). (PDF)

          Kröpelin, S., Verschuren, D., Lezine, A.-M. & Eggermont, H. Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years. Science (2008). (PDF)

          de Menocal, P. B. End of the African Humid Period. Science (2008). doi:10.1038/ngeo2329 (PDF)



          Reading Days: May 2nd to May 4th

          - 2 Hr Final Exam May 11th, Room 603 Schermerhorn, 9-11 am