Geology-Paleontology

The Geology/Paleontology faculty are exploring processes recorded in the rock record, including sedimentary, structural, igneous, marine, planetary and glacial geology; paleontology and geobiology. Research is process-oriented and interdisciplinary, with a strong field component. Active areas of research include faulting and crustal deformation within the lithopshere and along tectonic plate boundaries, the sedimentary record of climate and sea-level change, tectonic drivers of magmatism, volcanic systems, the evolution of the crust and mantle in the context of seafloor spreading, subduction zone processes, arc magmatism and ocean island volcanoes, glacial and landslide geomorphology, the structure and evolution of deeply exhumed rocks, and the evolution of life. Many of these topics include both terrestrial and marine approaches. The faculty has developed strong collaborations with scientists at the American Museum of Natural History.

David S. Goldberg
Personal Information
David
S.
Goldberg
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Marine Geology and Geophysics
Associate Director - Marine/Large Programs
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Contact Information
109 Borehole
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8674

Fax: 

(845) 365-8777

Fields of interest: 

Borehole Geophysics, Methane Hydrates, CO2 sequestration
Education
Ph.D.
Columbia University
1985
MBA
Columbia University
1989
MS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1981
BS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1981
Joerg M. Schaefer
Personal Information
Joerg
M.
Schaefer
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Geochemistry
Contact Information
409 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8703

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155
Selected Publications:
Greenland was nearly ice-free for extended periods during the Pleistocene, Schaefer, Joerg M.; Finkel, Robert C.; Balco, Greg; Alley, Richard B.; Caffee, Marc C.; Briner, Jason P.; Young, Nicolas E.; Gow, Anthony J.; Schwartz, Roseanne Nature December 8, 2016, Volume: 540 p.: 252-255 (2016) doi:10.1038/nature20146
Do phreatomagmatic eruptions at Ubehebe Crater (Death Valley, California) relate to a wetter than present hydro-climate?, Sasnett, P.; Goehring, B.M.; Christie-Blick, N.; and Schaefer, J.M. Geophysical Research Letters 01/2012, Volume: 39 (2012) 10.1029/2011GL050130
Terrestrial exposure-age record of Holocene ice sheet and ice shelf change in the northeast Antarctic Peninsula, Balco, Greg; Schaefer, Joerg M.; LARISSA group Quaternary Science Reviews (2012)
Estimating the Age of Glacial Features and Magnitude of Subglacial Erosion Using Beryllium-10 Depth Profiles: Results from Scoresby Sund, Greenland, Goehring, B.M.; Kelly, M.A.; Schaefer, J.M.; Lowell, T.V.; Finkel, R.M. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface (2010)
Changing influence of Antarctic and Greenlandic temperature records on sea-level over the last glacial cycle, Siddall, M.; Kaplan, M.R.; Schaefer, J.M.; Putnam, A.; Kelly, M.A.; Goehring, B. Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume: 29, Issue: 3-4 p.: 410-423 (2010) 10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.11.007
A reevaluation of in situ cosmogenic 3He production rates, Goehring, B.M.; Kurz, M.D.; Balco, G.; Schaefer, J.M.; Licciardi; J; Lifton, N. Quaternary Geochronology (2010)
A beryllium-10 production-rate for the Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes, Putnam, A E; Schaefer, J M; Vandergoes, M; Barrell, D; Kaplan, M; Goehring, B; Schwartz, R; Finkel, R; Kelley, S; Denton, G H Journal of Quaternary Geochronology (2010)
The bipolar switch - changing influence of Antarctic and Greenland temperature records on sea level over the last glacial cycle, Sidall, M; Kaplan, MR; Schaefer, JM; Putnam, A; Kelly, MA; Goehring, B Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume: 29 p.: 410-423 (2010)
A high precision 10Be production rate calibration in New Zealand's Southern Alps, Putnam, A; Schaefer, J M; Barrell, D; Kaplan, M; Denton, G H; Vandergoes, M; Schwartz, R; Finkel, R C; Goehring, B; Kelley, S M Quaternary Geochronology (2010)
A glacier advance in the Peruvian Andes during the late glacial period constrained with cosmogenic He-3, Bromley, G R M; Hall, B; Schaefer, J M; Winckler, G; Todd, C E; Rademacher, K M Journal of Quaternary Science (2010)
Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger Dryas stadial, Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H.; Barrell, D.J.A.; Chinn, T.J.H.; Putnam, A.E.; Andersen, B.G.; Finkel, R.C.; Schwartz, R.; Doughty, A. Nature (2010)
The last glacial termination, Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Edwards, R. L.; Schaefer, J. M.; Putnam, A. E Science, Volume: 328 p.: 1652-1656 (2010)
Glacier Retreat in New Zealand During the Younger Dryas Stadial, Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H.; Barrell, D.J.A.; Chinn, T.J.H.; Putnam, A.E.; Andersen, B.G.; Finkel, R.C.; Schwartz, R.; Doughty, A. Nature (2010)
Regional beryllium-10 production rate calibration for late-glacial northeastern North America, Balco, G.; Briner, J.; Finkel, R. C.; Rayburn, J. A.; Ridge, J. C.; Schaefer, J. M. Quaternary Geochronology Apr, Volume: 4, Issue: 2 p.: 93-107 (2009) DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2008.09.001
Precise Be-10 production rate calibration in New Zealand's Southern Alps for the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum periods,, Putnam, A.; Schaefer, J. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Barrell, D.; Kaplan, M.; Finkel, R.; Goehring, B.; Schwartz, R.; Denton, G. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta Jun, Volume: 73, Issue: 13 p.: A1061-A1061 (2009)
High-Frequency Holocene Glacier Fluctuations in New Zealand Differ from the Northern Signature, Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Kaplan, M.; Putnam, A.; Finkel, R. C.; Barrell, D. J. A.; Andersen, B. G.; Schwartz, R.; Mackintosh, A.; Chinn, T.; Schluchter, C. Science May 1, Volume: 324, Issue: 5927 p.: 622-625 (2009) DOI 10.1126/science.1169312
Holocene Glacier Fluctuations in the Peruvian Andes Indicate Northern Climate Linkages, Licciardi, J M; Schaefer, J M; Taggart, J R; Lund, D C Science, Volume: 325 p.: 1677 (2009)
Relative timing of last glacial maximum and late-glacial events in the central tropical Andes, Bromley, G R M; Schaefer, J M; Winckler, G; Hall, B L; Todd, C E; Rademaker, K M Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume: 28 p.: 2514 (2009)
High-Frequency Holocene Glacier Fluctuations in New Zealand Differ from the Northern Signature, Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Kaplan, M.; Putnam, A.; Finkel, R. C.; Barrell, D. J. A.; Andersen, B. G.; Schwartz, R.; Mackintosh, A.; Chinn, T.; Schluchter, C. Science (2009)
A Be-10 chronology of lateglacial and Holocene mountain glaciation in the Scoresby Sund region, east Greenland: implications for seasonality during lateglacial time, Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Hall, B. L.; Schaefer, J. M.; Finkel, R. C.; Goehring, B. M.; Alley, R. B.; Denton, G. H. Quaternary Science Reviews Dec, Volume: 27, Issue: 25-26 p.: 2273-2282 (2008) DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2008.08.004
Cosmogenic beryllium-10 and neon-21 dating of late Pleistocene glaciations in Nyalam, monsoonal Himalayas, Schaefer, J. M.; Oberholzer, P.; Zhao, Z.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Wieler, R.; Baur, H.; Kubik, P. W.; Schluchter, C. Quaternary Science Reviews Feb, Volume: 27, Issue: 3-4 p.: 295-311 (2008) DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.10.014
The production rate of cosmogenic Ar-38 from calcium in terrestrial pyroxene, Niedermann, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Wieler, R.; Naumann, R. Earth and Planetary Science Letters May 30, Volume: 257, Issue: 3-4 p.: 596-608 (2007) DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.03.020
Cosmogenic-nuclide and varve chronologies for the deglaciation of southern New England, Balco, G.; Schaefer, J. M. Quaternary Geochronology Feb, Volume: 1, Issue: 1 p.: 15-28 (2006) DOI 10.1016/j.quageo.2006.06.014
Near-synchronous interhemispheric termination of the last glacial maximum in mid-latitudes, Schaefer, J. M.; Denton, G. H.; Barrell, D. J. A.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kubik, P. W.; Andersen, B. G.; Phillips, F. M.; Lowell, T. V.; Schluchter, C. Science Jun 9, Volume: 312, Issue: 5779 p.: 1510-1513 (2006) DOI 10.1126/science.1122872
Terrestrial manganese-53 - A new monitor of Earth surface processes, Schaefer, J. M.; Faestern-Iann, T.; Herzog, G. F.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Masarik, J.; Meier, A.; PoutivtseV, M.; Rugel, G.; Schluchter, C. Earth and Planetary Science Letters Nov 15, Volume: 251, Issue: 3-4 p.: 334-345 (2006) DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.09.016
Timing of deglaciation on the northern Alpine foreland (Switzerland), Ivy-Ochs, S.; Schaefer, J.; Kubik, P. W.; Synal, H. A.; Schluchter, C. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, Volume: 97, Issue: 1 p.: 47-55 (2004) DOI 10.1007/s00015-004-1110-0
Limited Pliocene/Pleistocene glaciation in Deep Freeze Range, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, derived from in situ cosmogenic nuclides, Oberholzer, P.; Baroni, C.; Schaefer, J. M.; Orombelli, G.; Ochs, S. I.; Kubik, P. W.; Baur, H.; Wieler, R. Antarctic Science Dec, Volume: 15, Issue: 4 p.: 493-502 (2003) Doi 10.1017/S0954102003001603
Paul E. Olsen
Personal Information
Paul
E.
Olsen
Arthur D. Storke Memorial Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Biology and Paleo Environment
Contact Information
206D Geoscience
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8491

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

paleontology, stratigraphy, Evolution of continental ecosystems (climate change, mass extinctions)

The evolution of continental ecosystems (including their external and internal controls and their biological and physical components) is my overall area of research. I am especially interested in the pattern, causes and effects of climate change on geological time scales, mass extinctions, and the effects of evolutionary innovations on global biogeochemical cycles.

In recent years my students and I have engaged in multidisciplinary projects including: drilling and recovering more than 20, 000 feet of core from Triassic lake deposits in New Jersey to understand the influence of variations of the earth's orbit on tropical climate, detailed analysis of the great mass extinction 200 million years ago that set the stage for the dominance of the dinosaurs, excavations at major fossil vertebrate sites throughout eastern North America and Morocco, and the evolutionary processes mediating global carbon cycling. My approach is to use whatever techniques are available to understand ancient earth's biological and physical systems, and consequently, students involved in these areas have used a broad range of disciplines including structural geology, palynology, geochemistry, geophysics and paleontology.

Some of my projects include:

  • Newark Basin Coring Project (Paul Olsen and Dennis Kent) ( details )
  • Triassic-Jurassic Working Group ( details )
Education
Ph.D.
Yale
1983
Bachelor of Arts
Yale
1978
Mark A. Norell
Personal Information
Mark
A.
Norell
American Museum of Natural History
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Professor - Richarg Gilder Graduate School (AMNH)
Contact Information
Dept. of Earth & Planetary Science
Central Park West at 79th Street
New York
NY
10024-5192
US
(212) 769-5804

Fields of interest: 

Paleoclimate, paleoecology, climate modeling, wetland carbon storage, palynology.
Education
Ph.D.
New York University
1983
Master of Science
New York University
1979
Bachelor of Arts
Duke University
1974
Jerry F. McManus
Personal Information
Jerry
F.
McManus
Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Geochemistry
Contact Information
239 Comer
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8722

Fax: 

(845) 365-8155
Spahr C. Webb
Personal Information
Spahr
C.
Webb
Jerome M. Paros/Lamont Research Professor of Observational Physics
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Adjunct Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Contact Information
107 Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8439

Fax: 

(845) 365-8896

Fields of interest: 

Marine Seismology, Ocean Mantle Dynamics, Marine EM.

It was evident to me early in my undergraduate career that Earth Science majors had more fun than Physics majors. Better to wander the oceans or deserts than the corridors of some basement lab. Now several times each year I head out across the oceans to toss oceanographic gear into the abyss. Our understanding of the Earth and oceans is primarily driven by improved methods of observation. For this reason, the development of new sensors and techniques has been at the core of my group's efforts.

My current work is primarily in marine geophysics and seismology. We have built a large fleet of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) to record signals from earthquakes during year long deployments on the deep sea floor. We measure the perturbations to seismic waves from structures within the Earth to study the dynamics of the mantle and crust. The oceanic mantle is the key to understanding the driving forces of plate tectonics including convective processes, the fate of subducting slabs, Earth's hotspots (of which Hawaii and Iceland are the best examples), and the supply of magma to form the oceanic crust beneath ridge crests. We also study the oceanic crust using tomographic methods and man made sources. Tectonic and hydrothermal processes produce earthquakes detected by OBSs and we have even tracked animals within pods of migrating whales using whale song recorded at the seafloor. Other recent work includes mapping magnetic fields to probe temperatures within ridge crest hydrothermal systems and seafloor deformation under wave loading to study magma beneath ridge crests. Pressure gauges deployed in 2007 are monitoring vertical movements of the seafloor caused by volcanism or the movement of magma.

Education
Ph.D.
U.C. San Diego
1984
Bachelor of Science
M.I.T.
1978
Selected Publications:
Crustal structure beneath the gravity lineations in the Gravity Lineations, Intraplate Melting, Petrologic and Seismic Expedition (GLIMPSE) study area from seismic refraction data, Holmes, R. C.; Webb, S. C.; Forsyth, D. W. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth Jul 26, Volume: 112, Issue: B7 p.: - (2007) Doi 10.1029/2006jb004685
The Earth's 'hum' is driven by ocean waves over the continental shelves,, Webb, S. C. Nature Feb 15, Volume: 445, Issue: 7129 p.: 754-756 (2007) Doi 10.1038/Nature05536
Rayleigh wave tomography beneath intraplate volcanic ridges in the South Pacific, Weeraratne, D. S.; Forsyth, D. W.; Yang, Y. J.; Webb, S. C. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth Jun 12, Volume: 112, Issue: B6 p.: - (2007) Doi 10.1029/2006jb004403
Upper mantle structure beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean ridges, Gu, Y. J.; Webb, S. C.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Gaherty, J. B. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth Jun 11, Volume: 110, Issue: B6 p.: - (2005) Doi 10.1029/2004jb003381
Broad seismology and noise under the ocean, Webb, S.C. Rev. of Geophysics, Volume: 36 p.: 105-142 (1998)
Seismic, thermal, and chemical evidence for a propagating hydrothermal cracking event on the East Pacific Rise, (9° 50'N),, Sohn, R. A.; Fornari, D. J.; VonDamm, K. L.; Hildebrand, J. A.; Webb, S.C. Nature, Volume: 396 p.: 159-161 (1998)
Christopher Small
Personal Information
Christopher
Small
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Marine Geology and Geophysics
Adjunct Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Contact Information
304B Oceanography
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
347-535-4274

Fax: 

(845) 365-8156

Fields of interest: 

Geophysics; Land Surface Processes, Remote Sensing; Population and Environment.

Prior to 1992, the surfaces of Venus and Mars had been mapped in greater detail than the surface of Earth. Recent advances in remote sensing now provide us with detailed maps of seafloor structure and synoptic views of Earth's land surface. Remotely sensed observations also allow us to quantify the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Earth system. Quantifying these dynamics is the first step toward understanding them. Geophysics provides powerful tools and concepts that can be used to quantify and understand the dynamics of the Earth system. My research interests focus on the application of geophysics, remote sensing and spatio-temporal analysis to the study of the Earth system. Remotely sensed observations provide a necessary synoptic complement to field measurements. Similarly, field validation is necessary to calibrate remotely sensed measurements. Field validation also provides justification for travel.

Since coming to Columbia in 1993, My interest in the Earth system has expanded to include its biospheric components. Recognition that the tools and concepts of geophysics can be applied to a wider range of questions has resulted in a number of cross-disciplinary collaborations ranging from tropical deforestation monitoring to urban growth mapping. My current research interests center on the use of satellite remote sensing to quantify changes in Earth's surface and the causes and consequences of these changes. These interests have recently taken me to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, the North Fiji Basin, the Ethiopian highlands,  the Galapagos Archipelago, the Gobi Desert, the Belize River Basin and the Peruvian Andes.

Some of my projects include:

  • Marine Geophysics: Effects of spreading center migration on ocean basin structure and evolution. ( details )
  • Remote Sensing: Quantifying spatial and temporal dynamics of land surface properties via application of geophysical inverse theory to optical imagery. ( details )
  • Spatial Analysis: Multidimensional coanalysis of continental physiography, land cover, climate, and global population distribution. ( details)
Education
Ph.D
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego
1993
M.A.
University of Texas at Austin
1989
B.S.
University of Wisconsin - Madison
1985
Selected Publications:
Spatial Scaling of Stable Night Lights, Small, C.; Elvidge, C.; Balk, D.; Montgomery, M. Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume: 115, Issue: 2 p.: 269-280 (2011)
Constraints on asthenospheric flow from the depths of oceanic spreading centers: The East Pacific Rise and the Australian-Antarctic Discordance, Buck, W R; Small, C; Ryan W F B Geochem Geophys Geosyst, Volume: 10 p.: 101029/2009GC002373 (2009)
Spectroscopy of Sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta: Spectral Effects of Moisture, Grain Size and Lithology, Small, C; Steckler, M; Seeber, N; Akhter, H; Goodbred, S; Mia, B; Imam, B Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume: 113 p.: 342-361 (2009)
Comparative analysis of urban reflectance and surface temperature, Small, C. Remote Sensing of Environment Sep 30, Volume: 104, Issue: 2 p.: 168-189 (2006) DOI 10.1016/j.rse.2005.10.029
A global analysis of urban reflectance, Small, C. International Journal of Remote Sensing Feb 20, Volume: 26, Issue: 4 p.: 661-681 (2005)
Continental physiography, climate, and the global distribution of human population, Small, C.; Cohen, J. E. Current Anthropology Apr, Volume: 45, Issue: 2 p.: 269-277 (2004)
The landsat ETM plus spectral mixing space, Small, C. Remote Sensing of Environment Oct 30, Volume: 93, Issue: 1-2 p.: 1-17 (2004) DOI 10.1016/j.rse.2004.06.007
A global analysis of human settlement in coastal zones, Small, C.; Nicholls, R. J. Journal of Coastal Research Sum, Volume: 19, Issue: 3 p.: 584-599 (2003)
Plate-kinematic explanation for mid-oceanic-ridge depth discontinuities, Small, C.; Danyushevsky, L. V. Geology May, Volume: 31, Issue: 5 p.: 399-402 (2003)
Estimation of urban vegetation abundance by spectral mixture analysis, Small, C. International Journal of Remote Sensing May 10, Volume: 22, Issue: 7 p.: 1305-1334 (2001)
Holocene volcanism and the global distribution of human population, Small, C.; Naumann, T. Environmental Hazards, Volume: 3 p.: 93-109 (2001)
Marc W. Spiegelman
Personal Information
Marc
W.
Spiegelman
Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Contact Information
108K Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 704-2323

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

Dynamic fluid flow, from magma migration theory to sedimentary basins and groundwater hydrology.

My early enthusiasm for earth sciences was fed by a steady diet of outdoor activities and PBS documentaries. While it rapidly became clear that I would not be the next Jacques Cousteau, I found that I could combine my tastes for backpacking and physics as a geology/geophysics major. As a Harvard undergraduate, I constructed physical models of mountain-building processes between stints as a U.S. Forest Service ranger, then moved to Cambridge, England, where I conducted my Ph.D. research on magma migration in the mantle.

At Lamont, I have been extending magma migration theory into a more general one that describes the interactions between solids and fluids in the earth. Magma migration provides an important link between large-scale mantle convection and petrology/geochemistry and my research seeks to close the gap between these two disciplines. This work also lends new insights into other fluid-flow problems, current research is attempting to extend this theory to investigate dynamic fluid flow in sedimentary basins and groundwater hydrology. My work is primarily computational and my students, colleagues and I are implementing new techniques and technologies to take advantage of parallel computing. With a quantitative basis for fluid-flow research, we hope to integrate this theory with Lamont's strong observational programs in petrology, basin dynamics and groundwater tracer studies.

Education
Ph.D.
Cambridge
1989
Bachelor of Arts
Harvard
1985

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