Geophysics

The Geophysics faculty are concerned with the broad range of physical processes affecting the solid Earth, from the core, mantle, and crust to the cryosphere, and carry out related studies of Mercury, Mars, and Earth's moon. We focus on understanding plate-tectonic processes in marine and terrestrial settings, determining the structure of the Earth's interior, and understanding earthquake and volcano dynamics. We study mechanisms for ice, magma, and sediment transport and for the exchange of mass between the solid Earth and its fluid envelope, and we work to understand interactions of large-scale surface deformation with the oceans and atmosphere. We are also concerned with the quantitative study of natural hazards and associated risks, hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, and explosion and earthquake monitoring for the verification of nuclear test-ban treaties. Our research draws on a variety of approaches, including seismology; geodesy; remote sensing; volcanology; physical glaciology; rock mechanics; and geophysical fluid dynamics. We emphasize the integration of data-analysis and modeling approaches, and many faculty maintain active field programs and engage in the development of geophysical instrumentation. The Geophysics faculty contribute expertise to inform decision-making at the local, national and international levels.

Geophysics Courses
 

 

             

 

                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 

Christopher H. Scholz
Personal Information
Christopher
H.
Scholz
Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Contact Information
228 Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8360

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

Tectonophysics

The upper 10-40 km of Earth is cold and brittle. Most deformation in that region is therefore brittle, which in the long timescale occurs by the slip and growth of faults and on the short timescale occurs by earthquakes. Brittle tectonics thus is a single dynamical system that involves both the mechanics of faulting and of earthquakes. My research involves the study of this system in its entirety, employing laboratory experimentation on rock fracture and friction, observational and field study of earthquakes and faults, and theory. The work is physics based and is not regional. Earthquakes and faults selected for special study are global in extent and are selected based on criteria relevant to their likelihood of revealing new aspects of their mechanics. Recent fault studies have been in Ethiopia, Malawi, Iceland, California and New York.

  • Head, Center for Nonlinear Earth Systems
Education
Ph.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1967
Bachelor of Science
Nevada
1964
Selected Publications:
Transition regimes for growing crack populations, Spyropoulos, C.; Scholz, C. H.; Shaw, B. E. Physical Review E May, Volume: 65, Issue: 5 p.: - (2002) Doi 10.1103/Physreve.65.056105
Paul G. Richards
Personal Information
Paul
G.
Richards
Special Research Scientist
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Contact Information
225 Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8389

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

Theory of seismic wave propagation, the physics of earthquakes, the Earth's inner core, improvements in estimating earthquake locations, monitoring underground nuclear explosions, nuclear arms control

I have worked at Columbia since 1971, with a couple of years on leave in Washington working on nuclear arms control (in the U.S. Department of State), and four sabbaticals taken in New Zealand, in California (at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), in New Mexico (Los Alamos National Laboratory), and as a Phi Beta Kappa lecturer (on eleven different U.S. campuses).

I started out in research with a mathematics background, and an interest primarily in the theory of seismic wave propagation and in methods to understand how the recorded shapes of seismic waves are affected by processes of diffraction, attenuation and scattering. From such scientific work we learn details of the Earth's internal structure, and details of fault motion in earthquakes as rock spontaneously fractures and moves to reduce stress.

Since the mid-1980s my work has focused on the use of seismological methods to study nuclear weapon test explosions and their implications in both the scientific and political worlds. There have been about 2,000 such explosions (about one a week from 1950 to 1990, plus a few prior to 1950 and since 1990). How they are detected, and identified, and located, and how big they are, are often subjects of intense debate in technical and scientific forums. These issues are critical in evaluating present or prospective arms-control treaties.

A side effect of the end of the Cold War has been new opportunities to acquire seismic data on earthquakes and explosions in Russia and Central Asia. Together with my colleague Won-Young Kim at Lamont, I have had joint projects since 1991 with scientists working in Russia and Kazakhstan.

There is ongoing discussion of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the associated Non-Proliferation Treaty. The CTBT has been signed (as of April 2009) by 180 countries, and the NPT by over 180. Consideration of whether the U.S. should ratify the CTBT is ongoing. Reference to seismology is often made in these debates, but the technical material (assessment of monitoring capability) is often misrepresented in political arenas. ("In Washington, an argument has weight not from any logical force, but depending on who believes in it." --- Freeman Dyson.) At the CTBT negotiations in Geneva in 1994, I presented an "expert's paper" for the United States, on monitoring issues associated with this treaty. Starting in summer 2000 I worked on a National Academy of Sciences panel that in July 31 2002 issued a detailed report on "Technical Issues Related to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty" (it is available online at http://www.nap.edu). In the March 2009 issue of Scientific American, Won-Young Kim and I have an article ("Monitoring for Nuclear Explosions") concluding that: "Detection of a test of a nuclear weapon has become so effective and reliable that no nation could expect to get away with secretly exploding a device having military significance."

From 2000 to 2003 I led an applied research project to improve the accuracy with which seismic events (earthquakes, explosions) are routinely located by organizations engaged in treaty monitoring. This work is further described as the Lamont consortium to improve location of seismic events in Eastern Asia. With colleages at Lamont, I continue to be interested in the practical details of how to improve earthquake locations. It seems to be the last corner of seismology that is still dominated by methods developed during the era of analog recording, during which earthquakes were located one-at-a-time using phase picks. Today, for most events (but not all of them), it is possible to do much better, as demonstrated in numerous special studies of particular regions. The trick is to work with numerous earthquakes at the same time, locating each one relative to its neighbors, preferably using waveform cross-correlation to measure relative arrival times. The method works for regions of sufficient event density, for which archives of phase picks and/or waveforms are available or can be prepared. See for example an IRIS newsletter, or a PAGEOPH paper (2006).

I retain a strong interest in scientific studies of the Earth's interior, and in 1996, together with Xiaodong Song, reported seismological evidence (in a NATURE paper) that the inner core of the Earth is rotating eastwards with respect to the mantle and crust. Since the inner core is about the size of the Moon, the claim that it is moving at a rate perceptible on human time scales has many scientific implications, as noted in my Jeffreys lecture, given in 1999 and published in 2000.

In 2005, Xiaodong and I, with four co-authors, published (in SCIENCE) another paper on inner core rotation, that had data a hundred times better than our 1996 paper, and obtained essentially the same observational result: seismic waves through the inner core on a path from the South Sandwich Islands to Alaska have a travel time that gets smaller by about a tenth of a second per decade. We interpret this as a rotation rate that will turn the inner core eastward through one revolution inside the mantle in about 1000 years. In 2008, my student Jian Zhang (and David Schaff and I) published additional evidence for this result (in Geophysical Journal International, Sept '08), as part of a study of more than 100 high-quality doublet earthquakes observed for six different paths (PKIKP) of seismic waves through the inner core.

In July 2002, the second edition of my textbook "Quantitative Seismology" (originally written with Kei Aki in the 1970s) was published after seven years of rewriting. I maintain associated web pages on the Aki/Richards second edition. A paperback version of this book, making a few hundred small changes, was published in April 2009.

In June 2008 I formally retired from my professorship (becoming "emeritus" and continuing as a researcher) but still teach the undergraduate course Weapons of Mass Destruction at Columbia in spring semesters.

Outside my office, and outside my home, I am an organist, sing in the choir of Grace Episcopal Church, Nyack, NY, sail small boats...

That's it on this page, for paragraphs about "I" and "me" and "my." To conclude with a list of links:

Education
Ph.D. (Geophysics)
California Institute of Technology
1970
M.S. (Geology)
California Institute of Technology
1966
B.A. (Mathematics)
University of Cambridge
1965
John Anderson
Vernon Cormier
George Choy
Jack Boatright
Howard Quin
William Menke
Dean Witte
Jinghua Shi
Anyi Li
John Granville
Jian Zhang
Selected Publications:
Monitoring for Nuclear Explosions, Richards, Paul G.; Kim, Won-Young Scientific American 03/2009, Volume: 300, Issue: 3 p.: 70--77 (2009)
CTBT Monitoring: a Vital Activity for our Profession, Richards, Paul G. Seismological Research Letters, Volume: 79, Issue: May/June p.: 375--378 (2008)
Wide-scale detection of earthquake waveform doublets and further evidence for inner core super-rotation, Zhang, Jian; Richards, Paul G.; Schaff, David P. Geophysical Journal International, Volume: 174, Issue: September p.: 993--1006 (2008) doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03856.x
Seismic signature, Richards, P. G.; Kim, W. Y. Nature Physics Jan, Volume: 3, Issue: 1 p.: 4-6 (2007) Doi 10.1038/Nphys495
North Korean Nuclear Test: Seismic Discrimination at Low Yield, Kim, Won-Young; Richards, Paul G. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, Volume: 88, Issue: April 3 p.: 157 and 161 (2007)
The applicability of modern methods of earthquake location, Richards, P. G.; Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D.; Kim, W. Y. Pure and Applied Geophysics Mar, Volume: 163, Issue: 2-3 p.: 351-372 (2006) DOI 10.1007/s00024-005-0019-5
Double-difference relocation of earthquakes in central-western China, 1992-1999, Yang, Z. X.; Waldhauser, F.; Chen, Y. T.; Richards, P. G. Journal of Seismology Apr, Volume: 9, Issue: 2 p.: 241-264 (2005) DOI 10.1007/s10950-005-3988-z
Inner core differential motion confirmed by earthquake waveform doublets, Zhang, J.; Song, X. D.; Li, Y. C.; Richards, P. G.; Sun, X. L.; Waldhauser, F. Science Aug 26, Volume: 309, Issue: 5739 p.: 1357-1360 (2005) DOI 10.1126/science.1113193
A review of nuclear testing by the Soviet Union at Novaya Zemlya, 1955–1990, Khalturin, V. I.; Rautian, T. G.; Richards, P. G.; Leith, W. S. Science & Global Security, Volume: 13 p.: 1-42 (2005)
Repeating seismic events in China, Schaff, D. P.; Richards, P. G. Science Feb 20, Volume: 303, Issue: 5661 p.: 1176-1178 (2004)
Meredith Nettles
Personal Information
Meredith
Nettles
Associate Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Contact Information
230D Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8613

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

 

Education
Ph. D.
Harvard University
2005
M.S.
The University of Arizona
2000
A.B.
Harvard University
1995
William H. Menke
Personal Information
William
H.
Menke
Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Contact Information
203 Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 304-5381

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

seismology, volcanology, data analysis, inverse theory

A few years ago I stood on still-warm aa lava recently erupted from a volcanic fissure in Iceland. Somehow that fissure, and others like it along the earth's ridge axes, are responsible for making two-thirds of the earth's crust, including almost all the Atlantic Ocean's floor. Standing on a fissure, I can't see how that process happens. Crustal formation starts 100 km under my feet, well below the depth to which informed speculation based on field geology can penetrate.

Hence, I rely mainly on seismic tomography techniques that form images of earth's deep interior in much the same way that physicians' CAT scanners probe the human body.

I have applied tomographic imaging techniques to ridge axes and volcanoes in Iceland, fault systems in California, and mountains in the Himalayas. I also have a long-standing interest in improving and extending data analysis techniques that underlie interpreting modern digital data. I am always asking whether we can make a new type of measurement - or process standard measurements in a novel way - to improve images of earth structures.

Some of projects include:

  • Earthquake Location Methodology ( details )
  • Raytracing & 3D Tomography ( details )
  • Seismic Anisotropy ( details )
  • Magma Chambers along the Juan de Fuca Ridge ( details )

 

Education
Ph.D.
Columbia Univeristy
1982
B.S., M.S.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1976
Selected Publications:
The cross-convolution method for interpreting SKS splitting observations, with application to one and two-layer anisotropic earth models, Menke, W.; Levin, V. Geophysical Journal International Aug, Volume: 154, Issue: 2 p.: 379-392 (2003)
Magma storage beneath axial volcano on the Juan de Fuca mid-ocean ridge, West, M.; Menke, W.; Tolstoy, M.; Webb, S.; Sohn, R. Nature Oct 25, Volume: 413, Issue: 6858 p.: 833-836 (2001)
Arthur L. Lerner-Lam
Personal Information
Arthur
L.
Lerner-Lam
Deputy Director
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Office of the Director
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Adjunct Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Lamont Research Professor
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Contact Information
211 Monell
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8348

Fax: 

(845) 365-8162

Fields of interest: 

Seismology; focus on upper mantle structures.

Nothing can beat the excitement of collecting a singular piece of data, of measuring it delicately, of pronouncing it fit, and extracting its story. One thing an academic program in science must do is communicate science by current example and past history. And Columbia's Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory combine to do this very well. Whether we're in the field, at the bench, or in front of a computer, we all seem to feel and draw on the institutional memory here.

You have to keep poking at the earth to learn its secrets. As a seismologist, I do a lot of field work collecting data from earthquakes and explosions. I use these data to model the structure of the upper mantle and crust. A new class of seismic instrumentation has revolutionized the way we do science and has allowed us to develop new insights about the deformation of the lithosphere. We can now put first-class seismometers virtually anywhere to take "seismic photographs" of structures beneath them. For example, in a recent experiment in the Colorado Rockies, we were able to nail down the position of the western edge of the North American craton. We've also been working in the Caucasus, looking at thrust sheet deformation, and in eastern Kazakhstan, at one of the most seismically quiet sites ever found. My research will continue to focus on upper-mantle structures imaged by portable instruments, particularly in zones of large tectonic transitions.

Education
Ph.D.
UC San Diego
1982
Bachelor of Arts
Princeton
1975
Goran Ekstrom
Personal Information
Göran
Ekström
Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Contact Information
108I Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8427

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

Göran Ekström's main research interest is global earthquake seismology. This includes the detailed study of individual earthquake ruptures, and the relationship between seismicity and the large scale tectonic deformation of the crust and mantle over geologic time. Prof. Ekström's teaching interests include Environmental Geology, in particular the science and policy aspects of the assessment and mitigation of Geologic Hazards.
Education
Ph.D.
Harvard University
1987
B.A.
Swarthmore College
1981
Spahr C. Webb
Personal Information
Spahr
C.
Webb
Jerome M. Paros/Lamont Research Professor of Observational Physics
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Adjunct Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Contact Information
107 Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8439

Fax: 

(845) 365-8896

Fields of interest: 

Marine Seismology, Ocean Mantle Dynamics, Marine EM.

It was evident to me early in my undergraduate career that Earth Science majors had more fun than Physics majors. Better to wander the oceans or deserts than the corridors of some basement lab. Now several times each year I head out across the oceans to toss oceanographic gear into the abyss. Our understanding of the Earth and oceans is primarily driven by improved methods of observation. For this reason, the development of new sensors and techniques has been at the core of my group's efforts.

My current work is primarily in marine geophysics and seismology. We have built a large fleet of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) to record signals from earthquakes during year long deployments on the deep sea floor. We measure the perturbations to seismic waves from structures within the Earth to study the dynamics of the mantle and crust. The oceanic mantle is the key to understanding the driving forces of plate tectonics including convective processes, the fate of subducting slabs, Earth's hotspots (of which Hawaii and Iceland are the best examples), and the supply of magma to form the oceanic crust beneath ridge crests. We also study the oceanic crust using tomographic methods and man made sources. Tectonic and hydrothermal processes produce earthquakes detected by OBSs and we have even tracked animals within pods of migrating whales using whale song recorded at the seafloor. Other recent work includes mapping magnetic fields to probe temperatures within ridge crest hydrothermal systems and seafloor deformation under wave loading to study magma beneath ridge crests. Pressure gauges deployed in 2007 are monitoring vertical movements of the seafloor caused by volcanism or the movement of magma.

Education
Ph.D.
U.C. San Diego
1984
Bachelor of Science
M.I.T.
1978
Selected Publications:
Crustal structure beneath the gravity lineations in the Gravity Lineations, Intraplate Melting, Petrologic and Seismic Expedition (GLIMPSE) study area from seismic refraction data, Holmes, R. C.; Webb, S. C.; Forsyth, D. W. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth Jul 26, Volume: 112, Issue: B7 p.: - (2007) Doi 10.1029/2006jb004685
The Earth's 'hum' is driven by ocean waves over the continental shelves,, Webb, S. C. Nature Feb 15, Volume: 445, Issue: 7129 p.: 754-756 (2007) Doi 10.1038/Nature05536
Rayleigh wave tomography beneath intraplate volcanic ridges in the South Pacific, Weeraratne, D. S.; Forsyth, D. W.; Yang, Y. J.; Webb, S. C. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth Jun 12, Volume: 112, Issue: B6 p.: - (2007) Doi 10.1029/2006jb004403
Upper mantle structure beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean ridges, Gu, Y. J.; Webb, S. C.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Gaherty, J. B. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth Jun 11, Volume: 110, Issue: B6 p.: - (2005) Doi 10.1029/2004jb003381
Broad seismology and noise under the ocean, Webb, S.C. Rev. of Geophysics, Volume: 36 p.: 105-142 (1998)
Seismic, thermal, and chemical evidence for a propagating hydrothermal cracking event on the East Pacific Rise, (9° 50'N),, Sohn, R. A.; Fornari, D. J.; VonDamm, K. L.; Hildebrand, J. A.; Webb, S.C. Nature, Volume: 396 p.: 159-161 (1998)
John C. Mutter
Personal Information
John
C.
Mutter
Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Office of the Director
Professor
Contact Information
113 Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 365-8730

Fields of interest: 

Mid-ocean ridge and rift tectonics; natural disasters and sustainable development.

The face of the Earth is figured by continents and oceans whose present shape and positions are transients in the history of the planet. Earth is a dynamic engine of change. It is capable of tearing itself apart and has done so repeatedly throughout its history. The outer layers of the Earth are the solid thermal boundary layer of deep convective motions in the mantle and are primarily responsive to the deeper forces. Just how the Earth can tear itself apart, create new oceans by seafloor spreading, consume those oceans by subduction and continue that cycle over millions of years is an enduring quest for Earth scientists who study the solid Earth. How can we capture the true dymanics of the Earth? Seismic reflection methods enable one to "see" into the Earth but only as an instantaneous snapshot of "now". Earthquake studies monitor the present level of activity. What we are advancing toward are ways to capture the time evolution of active systems on mid-ocean ridges and rifting systems by making crude movies time lapse movies using reflection images taken at different times. These borrow old production techniques and re-form them for study of basic Earth processes.

Beyond this I am increasingly compelled to think about science and its role in the elevation of the world's poor. Science is the engine that drives economic progress in the developed world, but little science is practiced in poor countries and the benefits of our science have not come to the poor. How can science, which has brought so much to us, help elevate the poorest people on earth. With a third of the world's people living in poverty this has become an urgent question.

In my appointment at SIPA i am Director of Graduate Studies for the PhD in suatinable development. The program began in 2004 and now has 15 graduates and 32 current students.

I am particilalrly interested in the way that natural extremes that lead to disasters impact opportunities for development. I work with a development economist Sonali Deraniyagala in research and teaching on this subject. The results are surpisingly counterintuitive (one discussion is on this blog) and we are working on several publications. We recently traveled to Myanmar to study the rolke of corruption in post-disater reconstruction.

Some of my projects:

  • 3D/4D studies of mid-ocean ridge systems (see below)
  • Natural disaster and sustainable development.
  • Katrina deceased victims (see below)
  • Bamboo bikes for rural transportation in Africa (see below)
Education
Ph.D.
Columbia
1982
Master of Science
Sydney
1978
Bachelor of Science
Melbourne
1969
Selected Publications:
Seismic imaging in three dimensions on the East Pacific Rise, Mutter, J C; Carbotte, S M; Nedimovic, M; Canales, J P; Carton, H EOS, Volume: 90, Issue: 42 p.: 374-375 (2009)
Preconditions of Disaster: Promonitions of Tragedy, Mutter, J. C. Disasters:Recipes and Remedies, Volume: 75, The New School New York p.: 691-726 (2008)
Evidence for fault weakness and fluid flow within an active low-angle normal fault, Floyd, J. S.; Mutter, J. C.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Taylor, B. Nature Jun 14, Volume: 411, Issue: 6839 p.: 779-783 (2001)
Secure, Long-Term Sequestration of CO2 In Deep Saline Aquifers Associated With Oceanic and Continental Basaltic Rocks, Takahashi, T.; Goldberg, D.;Mutter, J. SRI International Symposium "Deep Sea & CO2 2000" p.: 1415 (2000)
Preconditions of Disaster: Promonitions of Tragedy, Mutter, J. C.; Carbotte, S. M.; Su, W. S.; Xu, L. Q.; Buhl, P.; Detrick, R. S.; Kent, G. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Harding, A. J. Science Apr 21, Volume: 268, Issue: 5209 p.: 391-395 (1995)
Seismic Images of Active Magma Systems beneath the East Pacific Rise between 17-Degrees-05' and 17-Degrees-35's, , Mutter, J. C.; Carbotte, S. M.; Su, W. S.; Xu, L. Q.; Buhl, P.; Detrick, R. S.; Kent, G. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Harding, A. J. , Volume: 268, Issue: 5209 p.: 391-395 (1995)
Marc W. Spiegelman
Personal Information
Marc
W.
Spiegelman
Professor
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Seismology Geology and Tectonophysics
Contact Information
108K Seismology
61 Route 9W - PO Box 1000
Palisades
NY
10964-8000
US
(845) 704-2323

Fax: 

(845) 365-8150

Fields of interest: 

Dynamic fluid flow, from magma migration theory to sedimentary basins and groundwater hydrology.

My early enthusiasm for earth sciences was fed by a steady diet of outdoor activities and PBS documentaries. While it rapidly became clear that I would not be the next Jacques Cousteau, I found that I could combine my tastes for backpacking and physics as a geology/geophysics major. As a Harvard undergraduate, I constructed physical models of mountain-building processes between stints as a U.S. Forest Service ranger, then moved to Cambridge, England, where I conducted my Ph.D. research on magma migration in the mantle.

At Lamont, I have been extending magma migration theory into a more general one that describes the interactions between solids and fluids in the earth. Magma migration provides an important link between large-scale mantle convection and petrology/geochemistry and my research seeks to close the gap between these two disciplines. This work also lends new insights into other fluid-flow problems, current research is attempting to extend this theory to investigate dynamic fluid flow in sedimentary basins and groundwater hydrology. My work is primarily computational and my students, colleagues and I are implementing new techniques and technologies to take advantage of parallel computing. With a quantitative basis for fluid-flow research, we hope to integrate this theory with Lamont's strong observational programs in petrology, basin dynamics and groundwater tracer studies.

Education
Ph.D.
Cambridge
1989
Bachelor of Arts
Harvard
1985

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